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<p class="MsoNormal"><a href="http://www.seattlepi.com/local/science/article/Juvenile-salmon-brains-anti-depressants-puget-6861890.php">http://www.seattlepi.com/local/science/article/Juvenile-salmon-brains-anti-depressants-puget-6861890.php</a><o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">Antidepressants and other drugs in Puget Sound water flowing over juvenile Chinook salmon gills and otherwise getting into their systems are building up in their brains and bodies.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">And, well, that just can't be good. But, fact is, we don't know what it's doing to them. Hell, we hardly know what it's doing to us in the long run.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">Nevertheless, a new study by James Meador with NOAA Fisheries in the Northwest has found some 92 chemicals from common drugs in Puget Sound water and bodies of young salmon and Pacific staghorn
 sculpin.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">Meador et al write in their recently published study "Contaminants of emerging concern in a large temperate estuary":<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">"Many of these are common household chemicals that pass through wastewater treatment, have been approved for use and/or consumption by the general public, and are generally considered to be
 non-toxic. However, the higher-than-expected levels for some of these chemicals in aquatic organisms and possibly aquatic-dependent wildlife along with critical gaps in toxicological and risk assessment data underscores their importance for further investigation
 in the context of environmental and public health concerns."<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">Man, you think?<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">We're using a bunch of these drugs to get us through the winters here (at least) and flushing and peeing this stuff into sewer systems that are largely not designed to take the chemicals out.
 But, okay. What's the skinning?<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">"It is noteworthy that our estuarine water samples were collected several hundred meters from the effluent outfalls and at a depth of only (2 meters), thus reported concentrations likely underestimate
 those occurring in deeper water and closer to outfalls. The effluent plume is expected to move horizontally with currents before substantial mixing occurs."<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">So, it's worse than even their study found. More ...<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-right:7.5pt;margin-bottom:15.0pt;margin-left:15.0pt;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:12.75pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;background:white">
<![if !supportLists]><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Symbol;color:#222222"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">·<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">        
</span></span></span><![endif]><span style="font-size:11.5pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:#222222">In our study, 16 antibiotic compounds were detected in water and fish tissue.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-right:7.5pt;margin-bottom:15.0pt;margin-left:15.0pt;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:12.75pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;background:white">
<![if !supportLists]><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Symbol;color:#222222"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">·<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">        
</span></span></span><![endif]><span style="font-size:11.5pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:#222222">Two of the antidepressants, sertraline and fluoxetine, are especially noteworthy because these were observed in juvenile Chinook ... Because brain tissue preferentially
 accumulates sertraline and fluoxetine and exhibits concentrations that are higher than other tissues, whole-body concentrations are likely lower than that expected for brain tissue, suggesting that brain tissue of juvenile Chinook salmon in our study contained
 very high levels of these antidepressants. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">There's that money quote.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-right:7.5pt;margin-bottom:15.0pt;margin-left:15.0pt;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:12.75pt;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2;background:white">
<![if !supportLists]><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Symbol;color:#222222"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">·<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">        
</span></span></span><![endif]><span style="font-size:11.5pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:#222222">Personal care products: Triclosan and triclocarban (antibiotics used in toothpaste and similar stuff) were detected in effluent and salmon tissue.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-right:7.5pt;margin-bottom:15.0pt;margin-left:15.0pt;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:12.75pt;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2;background:white">
<![if !supportLists]><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Symbol;color:#222222"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">·<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">        
</span></span></span><![endif]><span style="font-size:11.5pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:#222222">(Lipid fat reducing drugs) A number of compounds that target metabolic abnormalities (e.g. metabolic regulators) such as elevated lipids and hyperglycemia
 were observed in effluent, estuarine water, and fish tissue. These include atorvastatin, gemfibrozil, glipizide, glyburide, metformin, and simvastatin and they have the potential to act as metabolic disruptors affecting growth, lipid homeostasis, and energy
 balance in nontarget organisms when introduced to the environment. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">These are just the highlights of this pretty shocking study. Here's that painful punchline we've alluded to:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">A noteworthy outcome of the present study is the occurrence of several compounds in water and tissue that have the potential to affect fish growth, behavior, reproduction, immune function,
 and antibiotic resistance. One recent review provides a summary of studies on the effects of endocrine disruptors on immune system in fish (Milla et al., 2011). Many of these agents, such as metformin [a diabetes drug], may impact multiple systems such as
 growth and reproductive pathways.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">It is unlikely that the level of exposure for these compounds would result in direct mortality to estuarine organisms; however, all of the above mentioned responses could lead to indirect
 mortality or reduced population fitness.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">As noted by Spromberg and Meador (2005) and Meador (2014) even a minor inhibition in juvenile salmonid immune function or growth likely results in a major impact on survivability during their
 first year in marine waters.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">Looks like a good time to figure out either how to get this out of our waste water or at least understand more about how these drugs are changing the world around us ... as well as in us.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black"><o:p> </o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height:19.5pt;background:white;vertical-align:baseline">
<b><span style="font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black">Jake Ellison can be reached at 206-448-8334 or
<a href="mailto:jakeellison@seattlepi.com"><span style="font-family:RobotoBold;color:#3D8293;text-decoration:none">jakeellison@seattlepi.com</span></a>. Follow Jake on Twitter at
<a href="https://twitter.com/Jake_News"><span style="font-family:RobotoBold;color:#3D8293;text-decoration:none">twitter.com/Jake_News</span></a>. Also, swing by and *LIKE* his page on
<a href="https://www.facebook.com/jakeellisonnews" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:RobotoBold;color:#3D8293;text-decoration:none">Facebook</span></a>. If Google Plus is your thing, check out our science coverage<a href="https://plus.google.com/b/117812272041622443484/117812272041622443484/posts" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:RobotoBold;color:#3D8293;text-decoration:none">
 here</span></a>.</span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:RobotoRegular;color:black"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Laurie Tenace<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Environmental Specialist<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Waste Reduction Section<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Florida Department of Environmental Protection<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">2600 Blair Stone Road, MS4555<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Tallahassee, FL  32399<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><a href="mailto:Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.us">Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.us</a><o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">850.245.8759<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p>
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