[Pharmwaste] Growth Spurt for EDC Recognition

Tenace, Laurie Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.us
Fri, 26 Aug 2005 13:13:13 -0400


This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

------_=_NextPart_001_01C5AA61.70DA9510
Content-Type: text/plain;
	charset="us-ascii"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

No mention of waste water - but interesting research on =
endocrine-disrupting
chemicals

=20

http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/113-8/niehsnews.html#grow

Growth Spurt for EDC Recognition=20

Once in a great while, a scientific conference takes place that later =
proves
to have been a turning point in a particular field--a seminal event
remembered long after the name tags have been discarded and the posters
recycled. Although it's too soon to be certain, participants say the =
Forum on
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, held 3 June 2005 in San Diego, may well =
come
to be seen as a landmark in both the growth of the discipline and the
progress of the science itself.=20

With the stated intent of bringing the science of endocrine-disrupting
chemicals (EDCs) to the forefront, The Endocrine Society convened the
workshop the day before its 87th annual meeting. Although EDCs have been =
on
the society's agenda before, the forum was its first day-long, formally
organized event devoted to the subject.=20

"We've had very scattered presentations of results from the NIEHS and =
the
Environmental Protection Agency at the endocrine meeting from time to =
time,
but it was really hard in the past to produce a great deal of interest," =
says
Kenneth Korach, program director of the NIEHS Environmental Diseases and
Medicine Program, who delivered the keynote address at the forum. "Now =
The
Endocrine Society is taking a much more active role in expanding its
interactions and development regarding the endocrine disruptor field, =
and
there seems to be a strong commitment for supporting endocrine disruptor
research and establishing a formal society program in EDCs."=20

Attendance at the forum--organized by prominent EDC researchers Andrea =
Gore,
R. Thomas Zoeller, and Jerrold Heindel--included more than 200 =
toxicologists,
epidemiologists, clinicians, and other members of the endocrinology
community, indicating that the effort to reach across disciplines and
encourage translation has been successful. Korach believes that =
increasing
awareness of EDCs among clinicians is particularly important. "Some of =
the
effects of EDCs that will be seen in humans will be picked up by . . .
endocrinologists in their diagnosis of disorders as these patients =
present to
them, so educating them will be very worthwhile in terms of =
translational
research."=20

Korach and fellow NIEHS scientists Retha Newbold and John McLachlan (now =
at
Tulane University) were among the pioneers in EDC research; today, =
Korach is
encouraged by the field's progress. "Twenty-five or thirty years ago, it =
was
a very small group, but now we're drawing more and more people into it =
from
other disciplines," he said, "and that's a real success in terms of the
education taking place at this forum."=20

In Utero and Beyond=20

Korach, Newbold, and several other speakers familiarized attendees with =
the
latest and most significant concepts in the field, focusing to a large =
extent
on the growing belief that exposure to EDCs in utero can result in
gene-environment interactions that will cause susceptibility to disease =
or
reproductive problems later in life. The developing embryo is thought to =
be
particularly sensitive to exposure to even low doses of exogenous EDCs =
during
critical periods in early development, especially during sexual
differentiation and organ development. The synthetic estrogen
diethylstilbestrol, a well-known human carcinogen, is perhaps the most =
famous
example of an EDC with a potentially devastating impact following fetal
exposure. This compound was prescribed to more than 5 million women to
prevent miscarriages from the 1940s through the 1970s, and many of the
children born to those women have experienced immune system problems,
cancers, and reproductive maladies such as deformed reproductive organs =
and
infertility.=20

The forum also featured presentations reporting a variety of highly
significant recent findings regarding the effects of EDCs. Work =
published 3
June 2005 in Science and presented by Michael Skinner, director of the =
Center
for Reproductive Biology at Washington State University, could prove to =
have
extraordinarily far-reaching implications.=20

Skinner's group was researching the effects of two model EDCs--the
antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin and the estrogenic pesticide
methoxychlor--on embryonic testis development in mice. They discovered =
that
exposing gestating mothers to the EDCs caused reduced sperm generation =
in
adult male offspring. More importantly, as they continued to breed the
animals, they found that the altered phenotype was retained all the way =
to
the fourth generation--the male germ line had been permanently =
reprogrammed.
"The human analogy is that your grandmother may have been exposed to an
environmental toxicant, and two generations later, you might have a =
disease,
even though you've never seen the toxicant--and then you could =
potentially
pass it on to your grandchildren," says Skinner.=20

The transgenerational effect was found to be epigenetic, caused by a =
chemical
modification of DNA through methylation, as opposed to a normal base DNA
mutation. Ninety percent of the offspring in each generation inherited =
the
phenotype, a very high transmission frequency compared to that seen with
genetic mutational events, which is typically 1% or less.=20

"Now we need to consider this transgenerational effect in our future
analyses, doing transgenerational studies to see if the effects of a =
toxicant
can actually be transferred to the subsequent generations," says =
Skinner. It
will also be important to identify the types of compounds, including =
other
EDCs, that may tend to have this effect. Skinner says this is among =
several
lines of investigation his team will pursue.=20

Beyond the effects on male fertility, the group also found that as both =
the
male and female animals aged, they experienced other disease states such =
as
premature aging, prostate disease, kidney disease, and tumor =
development.
This implies that the epigenetic transgenerational effects of an
environmental exposure may actually constitute a previously unrecognized
disease mechanism. Identifying the genes with this reprogrammed =
methylation
pattern that are transgenerational could lead to the development of many =
new
diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. Skinner and his colleagues =
are now
in the early stages of establishing candidate genes and exploring their
correlation with certain diseases.=20

Finally, the discovery raises the possibility that any environmental =
factor
with an epigenetic effect could play a significantly more important role =
in
evolutionary biology than previously suspected. "If you have a =
subpopulation
of animals that are exposed and gain this permanent genetic phenotype, =
then
you actually could potentially change the evolution of that species," =
Skinner
explains. "This could explain and provide a mechanism for some unknown
parameters in evolutionary biology."=20

Reproduction Ramifications=20

In another presentation, Shanna Swan, a professor of obstetrics and
gynecology at the University of Rochester Medical Center, shared the =
results
of her group's investigation--the first of its kind in humans--of the =
effects
of prenatal phthalate exposure on male testicular development. =
Phthalates are
a common class of chemicals used in many household products, plastics, =
and
cosmetics, and population studies have shown that virtually everyone =
carries
some level of body burden of the compounds. In a study published in the
August 2005 issue of EHP, the team found, consistent with previous =
rodent
studies on phthalate exposure, an association between elevated =
intrauterine
phthalate concentrations and adverse effects on male infants' genital
characteristics that serve as markers for normal sexual development,
particularly the distance between the anus and the base of the penis.=20

"The idea is that the development of the testes is interrupted in fetal =
life,
and that this has consequences in adult life, as well as at birth," says
Swan. "We've certainly seen that [effect] in rodents, and this is the =
first
evidence that it may occur in humans as well." [For more information on =
this
study, see "Phthalates and Baby Boys," p. A542 this issue.
<http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/113-8/ss.html> ]=20

Two other presentations at the forum were particularly noteworthy. In =
one,
Frederick vom Saal, a professor in the Division of Biological Sciences =
at the
University of Missouri-Columbia, described several of his group's =
studies
into the interactive effects between varying levels of bisphenol A and =
fetal
endogenous estradiol.=20

Bisphenol A is used extensively as a liner in canned goods, and in
polycarbonate plastic products such as baby bottles, water bottles, and
laboratory equipment including animal cages and feeding and watering
equipment. The chemical has been shown to leach in bioactive amounts =
from
such products, particularly when they are scratched or worn. According =
to vom
Saal, this could represent a previously unrecognized source of =
disruption to
laboratory experiments, with bisphenol A exposure impacting hormonal =
activity
in experimental animals.=20

Even at very low doses of bisphenol A--well below the "no effect"
concentrations recognized in current regulations--vom Saal and =
colleagues
have seen prostate deformities in experimental animals associated with =
minute
changes in background fetal estradiol levels. He told attendees that, =
given
the understanding that the fetus is extremely sensitive to very small =
changes
in estrogen, it seems clear that the levels of bisphenol A that leach =
out of
products constitute a threat to human health.=20

In the other presentation, graduate student Stefanie Whish of Northern
Arizona University in Flagstaff described research to be presented at =
the
main meeting suggesting that uranium in its soluble form is an EDC, and =
may
contribute to reproductive health problems in the Navajo people. Whish =
and
her colleagues treated ovariectomized mice with uranyl nitrate in =
drinking
water. Despite the absence of ovaries, the animals exhibited =
estrogen-like
responses to the uranyl nitrate exposure, suggesting that the compound =
is
estrogenic and possibly an EDC. These results were observed at the EPA's =
safe
drinking water concentration level for uranyl nitrate, which is exceeded =
in
many drinking water sources in the Four Corners region of the Navajo =
nation.=20

With scientific evidence mounting that EDCs may have profound and =
complex
effects upon human health, it is becoming increasingly clear that a
comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach will be needed to gain the
knowledge necessary to accurately assess risk and develop therapies. =
Only
time will tell, but this forum may be seen as a landmark event in =
achieving
the critical mass of cross-disciplinary interest, enthusiasm, and
communication that will result in important new discoveries in the =
future.=20

=20

=20

Laurie J. Tenace

Environmental Specialist

Florida Department of Environmental Protection

2600 Blair Stone Road, MS 4555

Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400

PH: (850) 245-8759

FAX: (850) 245-8811

Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.us

=20

view our mercury web pages at:=20

http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/mercury/default.htm

=20

=20

=20


------_=_NextPart_001_01C5AA61.70DA9510
Content-Type: text/html;
	charset="us-ascii"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

<html>

<head>
<META HTTP-EQUIV=3D"Content-Type" CONTENT=3D"text/html; =
charset=3Dus-ascii">
<meta name=3DGenerator content=3D"Microsoft Word 11 (filtered)">

<style>
<!--
 /* Style Definitions */
 p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
	{margin:0in;
	margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	font-size:11.0pt;
	font-family:Arial;}
a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
	{color:blue;
	text-decoration:underline;}
a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
	{color:purple;
	text-decoration:underline;}
p
	{margin-right:0in;
	margin-left:0in;
	font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Times New Roman";}
span.EmailStyle17
	{font-family:Arial;
	color:windowtext;}
p.fig, li.fig, div.fig
	{margin-right:0in;
	margin-left:0in;
	font-size:6.0pt;
	font-family:"Times New Roman";}
@page Section1
	{size:8.5in 11.0in;
	margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in;}
div.Section1
	{page:Section1;}
-->
</style>

</head>

<body lang=3DEN-US link=3Dblue vlink=3Dpurple>

<div class=3DSection1>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>No mention
of waste water &#8211; but interesting research on endocrine-disrupting
chemicals</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'><a
href=3D"http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/113-8/niehsnews.html#grow">htt=
p://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/113-8/niehsnews.html#grow</a></span></fon=
t></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><b><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New =
Roman";font-weight:bold'>Growth
Spurt for EDC Recognition </span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Once in a great while, a =
scientific
conference takes place that later proves to have been a turning point in =
a
particular field--a seminal event remembered long after the name tags =
have been
discarded and the posters recycled. Although it's too soon to be =
certain,
participants say the Forum on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, held 3 =
June 2005
in San Diego, may well come to be seen as a landmark in both the growth =
of the
discipline and the progress of the science itself. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>With the stated intent of bringing =
the
science of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the forefront, The
Endocrine Society convened the workshop the day before its 87th annual =
meeting.
Although EDCs have been on the society's agenda before, the forum was =
its first
day-long, formally organized event devoted to the subject. =
</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>&quot;We've had very scattered
presentations of results from the NIEHS and the Environmental Protection =
Agency
at the endocrine meeting from time to time, but it was really hard in =
the past
to produce a great deal of interest,&quot; says Kenneth Korach, program =
director
of the NIEHS Environmental Diseases and Medicine Program, who delivered =
the
keynote address at the forum. &quot;Now The Endocrine Society is taking =
a much
more active role in expanding its interactions and development regarding =
the
endocrine disruptor field, and there seems to be a strong commitment for
supporting endocrine disruptor research and establishing a formal =
society
program in EDCs.&quot; </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Attendance at the forum--organized =
by
prominent EDC researchers Andrea Gore, R. Thomas Zoeller, and Jerrold =
Heindel--included
more than 200 toxicologists, epidemiologists, clinicians, and other =
members of
the endocrinology community, indicating that the effort to reach across
disciplines and encourage translation has been successful. Korach =
believes that
increasing awareness of EDCs among clinicians is particularly important.
&quot;Some of the effects of EDCs that will be seen in humans will be =
picked up
by . . . endocrinologists in their diagnosis of disorders as these =
patients
present to them, so educating them will be very worthwhile in terms of
translational research.&quot; </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Korach and fellow NIEHS scientists =
Retha
Newbold and John McLachlan (now at Tulane University) were among the =
pioneers
in EDC research; today, Korach is encouraged by the field's progress.
&quot;Twenty-five or thirty years ago, it was a very small group, but =
now we're
drawing more and more people into it from other disciplines,&quot; he =
said,
&quot;and that's a real success in terms of the education taking place =
at this
forum.&quot; </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><b><i><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New =
Roman";font-weight:bold;
font-style:italic'>In Utero</span></font></i></b><b><font size=3D3
face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";
font-weight:bold'> and Beyond </span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Korach, Newbold, and several other
speakers familiarized attendees with the latest and most significant =
concepts
in the field, focusing to a large extent on the growing belief that =
exposure to
EDCs <i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>in utero</span></i> can result =
in
gene-environment interactions that will cause susceptibility to disease =
or
reproductive problems later in life. The developing embryo is thought to =
be
particularly sensitive to exposure to even low doses of exogenous EDCs =
during
critical periods in early development, especially during sexual =
differentiation
and organ development. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, a =
well-known
human carcinogen, is perhaps the most famous example of an EDC with a
potentially devastating impact following fetal exposure. This compound =
was
prescribed to more than 5 million women to prevent miscarriages from the =
1940s
through the 1970s, and many of the children born to those women have
experienced immune system problems, cancers, and reproductive maladies =
such as
deformed reproductive organs and infertility. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The forum also featured =
presentations
reporting a variety of highly significant recent findings regarding the =
effects
of EDCs. Work published 3 June 2005 in <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>Science</span></i>
and presented by Michael Skinner, director of the Center for =
Reproductive
Biology at Washington State University, could prove to have =
extraordinarily
far-reaching implications. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Skinner's group was researching =
the
effects of two model EDCs--the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin and =
the
estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor--on embryonic testis development in =
mice.
They discovered that exposing gestating mothers to the EDCs caused =
reduced
sperm generation in adult male offspring. More importantly, as they =
continued
to breed the animals, they found that the altered phenotype was retained =
all
the way to the fourth generation--the male germ line had been =
permanently
reprogrammed. &quot;The human analogy is that your grandmother may have =
been
exposed to an environmental toxicant, and two generations later, you =
might have
a disease, even though you've never seen the toxicant--and then you =
could
potentially pass it on to your grandchildren,&quot; says Skinner. =
</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The transgenerational effect was =
found to
be epigenetic, caused by a chemical modification of DNA through =
methylation, as
opposed to a normal base DNA mutation. Ninety percent of the offspring =
in each
generation inherited the phenotype, a very high transmission frequency =
compared
to that seen with genetic mutational events, which is typically 1% or =
less. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>&quot;Now we need to consider this
transgenerational effect in our future analyses, doing transgenerational
studies to see if the effects of a toxicant can actually be transferred =
to the
subsequent generations,&quot; says Skinner. It will also be important to
identify the types of compounds, including other EDCs, that may tend to =
have
this effect. Skinner says this is among several lines of investigation =
his team
will pursue. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Beyond the effects on male =
fertility, the
group also found that as both the male and female animals aged, they
experienced other disease states such as premature aging, prostate =
disease,
kidney disease, and tumor development. This implies that the epigenetic
transgenerational effects of an environmental exposure may actually =
constitute
a previously unrecognized disease mechanism. Identifying the genes with =
this reprogrammed
methylation pattern that are transgenerational could lead to the =
development of
many new diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. Skinner and his =
colleagues
are now in the early stages of establishing candidate genes and =
exploring their
correlation with certain diseases. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Finally, the discovery raises the
possibility that any environmental factor with an epigenetic effect =
could play
a significantly more important role in evolutionary biology than =
previously
suspected. &quot;If you have a subpopulation of animals that are exposed =
and
gain this permanent genetic phenotype, then you actually could =
potentially
change the evolution of that species,&quot; Skinner explains. &quot;This =
could
explain and provide a mechanism for some unknown parameters in =
evolutionary biology.&quot;
</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><b><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New =
Roman";font-weight:bold'>Reproduction
Ramifications </span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>In another presentation, Shanna =
Swan, a
professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Rochester =
Medical
Center, shared the results of her group's investigation--the first of =
its kind
in humans--of the effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on male =
testicular
development. Phthalates are a common class of chemicals used in many =
household
products, plastics, and cosmetics, and population studies have shown =
that
virtually everyone carries some level of body burden of the compounds. =
In a
study published in the August 2005 issue of <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>EHP</span></i>,
the team found, consistent with previous rodent studies on phthalate =
exposure,
an association between elevated intrauterine phthalate concentrations =
and
adverse effects on male infants' genital characteristics that serve as =
markers
for normal sexual development, particularly the distance between the =
anus and
the base of the penis. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>&quot;The idea is that the =
development of
the testes is interrupted in fetal life, and that this has consequences =
in
adult life, as well as at birth,&quot; says Swan. &quot;We've certainly =
seen
that [effect] in rodents, and this is the first evidence that it may =
occur in
humans as well.&quot; [For more information on this study, see <a
href=3D"http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/113-8/ss.html"><b><font =
color=3D"#5c963f"
face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-family:Arial;color:#5C963F;font-weight:bold;
text-decoration:none'>&quot;Phthalates and Baby Boys,&quot; p. A542 this =
issue.</span></font></b></a>]
</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Two other presentations at the =
forum were
particularly noteworthy. In one, Frederick vom Saal, a professor in the
Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri-Columbia,
described several of his group's studies into the interactive effects =
between
varying levels of bisphenol A and fetal endogenous estradiol. =
</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Bisphenol A is used extensively as =
a
liner in canned goods, and in polycarbonate plastic products such as =
baby bottles,
water bottles, and laboratory equipment including animal cages and =
feeding and
watering equipment. The chemical has been shown to leach in bioactive =
amounts
from such products, particularly when they are scratched or worn. =
According to
vom Saal, this could represent a previously unrecognized source of =
disruption
to laboratory experiments, with bisphenol A exposure impacting hormonal
activity in experimental animals. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Even at very low doses of =
bisphenol
A--well below the &quot;no effect&quot; concentrations recognized in =
current
regulations--vom Saal and colleagues have seen prostate deformities in
experimental animals associated with minute changes in background fetal
estradiol levels. He told attendees that, given the understanding that =
the
fetus is extremely sensitive to very small changes in estrogen, it seems =
clear
that the levels of bisphenol A that leach out of products constitute a =
threat
to human health. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>In the other presentation, =
graduate
student Stefanie Whish of Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff =
described
research to be presented at the main meeting suggesting that uranium in =
its
soluble form is an EDC, and may contribute to reproductive health =
problems in
the Navajo people. Whish and her colleagues treated ovariectomized mice =
with
uranyl nitrate in drinking water. Despite the absence of ovaries, the =
animals
exhibited estrogen-like responses to the uranyl nitrate exposure, =
suggesting
that the compound is estrogenic and possibly an EDC. These results were
observed at the EPA's safe drinking water concentration level for uranyl
nitrate, which is exceeded in many drinking water sources in the Four =
Corners region of the Navajo nation. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>With scientific evidence mounting =
that
EDCs may have profound and complex effects upon human health, it is =
becoming
increasingly clear that a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach will =
be
needed to gain the knowledge necessary to accurately assess risk and =
develop
therapies. Only time will tell, but this forum may be seen as a landmark =
event
in achieving the critical mass of cross-disciplinary interest, =
enthusiasm, and
communication that will result in important new discoveries in the =
future. </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>Laurie
J. Tenace</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>Environmental
Specialist</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>Florida
Department of Environmental Protection</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>2600</span></font><font
 size=3D2><span style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'> Blair Stone Road, =
MS</span></font><font
size=3D2><span style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'> 4555</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>Tallahassee</span></font><font
 size=3D2><span style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>, Florida =
32399-2400</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>PH:
(850) 245-8759</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>FAX:
(850) 245-8811</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'><a
href=3D"mailto:Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.us">Laurie.Tenace@dep.state.fl.=
us</a></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'>view
our mercury web pages at: </span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt'><a
href=3D"http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/mercury/default.htm">=
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/mercury/default.htm</a></span=
></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></font></p>

</div>

</body>

</html>

------_=_NextPart_001_01C5AA61.70DA9510--