[Pharmwaste] FW: Pharmwaste Digest, Vol 24, Issue 14 re dog parks

Margaret Nellor margie at nellorenvironmental.com
Thu Nov 1 12:38:03 EDT 2007


A number of studies have been conducted on the removal of pharmaceuticals
and other chemicals present in tertiary treated wastewater via soil aquifer
treatment (SAT) (Dickenson, 2006; Drewes et al., 2001; Drewes, 2006; Drewes,
2007a; Drewes, 2007b; Fox et al., 2001; Fox et al., 2006). The drugs that
appear to most recalcitrant are the flame retardants and anti-epileptics,
and after SAT are present in the low parts per trillion range. Further
attenuation occurs through dilution with groundwater. The table below shows
SAT effectiveness for a variety of chemicals including some pharmaceuticals.
None of this or course negates the need for pet owners to be responsible. 

 

Natural Attenuation / SAT


Good Removal

Intermediate Removal

Poor Removal


> 90%

50 - 90%

25 - 50%

< 25%


*   Atenolol1

*   Atorvastatin2

*   Caffeine

*   Diclofenac3

*   Estrone4

*   Fluoxetine5

*   Gemfibrozil6

*   Ibuprofen3

*   Iopromide7

*   Meprobamate8

*   Naproxen3

*   NDMA9

*   Norfluoxetine5

*   o-Hydroxy atorvastatin2

*   p-Hydroxy atorvastatin2

*   Salicyclic Acid10

*   Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid2

*   Sulfamethoxazole11

*   Triclosan12

*   Trimethoprim11

*   Dilantin13

*   TCEP14

*   Carbamazepine13

*   Primidone13

*   TCPP15

*   TDCPP16

						

                                                           Sources: Drewes,
2007a and Drewes, 2007b

1 Beta blocker

2 Statin

3 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory

4 Naturally occurring estrogen

5 Antidepressant 

6 Lipid-regulator

7 Radiological contrast agent

8 Anti-aanxiety drug

9 N-Nitrosodimethlyamine

10 Analgesic

11 Antibiotic

12 Antibacterial chemical

13 Anti-epileptic drug

14 Tris(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate, flame retardant

15 Tris(2-chloroisopropyl)-phosphate, flame retardant

16 Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate, flame retardant

 


References


*         Dickenson, E., 2006. Identifying Indicators and Surrogates for
Chemical Contaminant Removal during Indirect Potable Reuse. Presentation at
10th Annual WateReuse Foundation Research Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2006.

*         Drewes, J.  E., et al., 2001. Removal of Pharmaceuticals during
Conventional Wastewater Treatment, Advanced Membrane Treatment and
Soil-aquifer Treatment. Proceedings 2nd International Conference on
Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, October 2001.

*         Drewes, J., 2006. Viability of TOC as a Surrogate for Unregulated
Trace Organics in Indirect Potable Reuse Applications. Presentation at 10th
Annual WateReuse Foundation Research Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2006.

*         Drewes, J. et al., 2007a. Identifying Indicators and Surrogates
for Chemical Contaminant Removal during Indirect Potable Reuse. Presentation
to the California DPH Groundwater Recharge Regulation Working Group, April
2007.

*         Drewes, J., 2007b. Trace Organic Compounds during Wastewater
Treatment. Presentation to WERF Workshop on Trace Organics: Mapping a
Collaborative Research Roadmap, May 17-18, 2007, San Francisco, CA.

*         Fox, P., et al., 2001. An Investigation of Soil Aquifer Treatment
for Sustainable Water Reuse. AWWA Research Foundation and American Water
Works Association, Denver, CO.

*         Fox, P., et al., 2006. Advances in Soil Aquifer Treatment for
Sustainable Reuse. AWWA Research Foundation and American Water Works
Association, Denver, CO.

 

Margaret Nellor

President

Nellor Environmental Associates, Inc.

4024 Walnut Clay Drive

Austin, TX 78731

512.374.9330

 

-----Original Message-----
From: pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us
[mailto:pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us] On Behalf Of Andria
Ventura
Sent: Monday, October 29, 2007 7:44 PM
To: pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us
Subject: [Pharmwaste] FW: Pharmwaste Digest, Vol 24, Issue 14 re dog parks

 

 

I have to weigh in on this since I bring my miniature schnauzer to the park

regularly, and he is on thyroid medication.  The truth is that whether at a

dog park or just going down the street, the urine from pets may end up

either in the  waste or storm water stream.  But I would suspect that much

of it sinks  into soil and since it is dispersed, I'm not sure how much of

an impact that would have on groundwater.  While I agree with some of the

comments already posted that this may not be our biggest priority, I do

think that we need to be concerned about what happens to the unfinished meds

that pet owners dispose of improperly.  Animal owners and veterinarians must

be reminded to treat these products in the same fashion that we are asking

them to do with human drug products and they should be included in take back

programs as well.  I suspect that many people don't think of these products

as the same as human drugs.

 

I'm not trying to belittle the impacts of the millions of companion animals

on our environment, which not only include phramcueticals, but over use of

pesticide flea treatments and bacteria from feces that enter ground and

surface water as well.  However,  let's face it, the amount of urine coming

out of a dog is much less than your average cow or horse, so a dog park is

much less of a threat than a factory farm or feed lot.  That said, I am a

bit concerned with the way my own city (San Jose, CA) is building dog parks.

The few that we have (and they are pretty small), have artificial turf that

allows for the urine to drain into the soil below.  I'm not sure if that

means that what is drained is collecting underneath, instead of evaporating

(I realize that evaporation doesn't remove the drug products).  There have

also been reports that the chemicals in artificial turf can be problems in

and of themselves and since they are cleaned regularly by the Parks Dept., I

wonder about cleaning chemicals sinking into ground water or washing down

the storm drains.  And, of course, I don't think the dog likes it as much as

the real thing.

 

While, as I've said, I don't think of this as a priority, I appreciate that

the problem has been brought up.  We certainly need to consider a wide

variety of pathways by which pharmaceuticals are entering our waste water

systems and water resources.

-----Original Message-----

From: pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us

[mailto:pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us] On Behalf Of

pharmwaste-request at lists.dep.state.fl.us

Sent: Sunday, October 28, 2007 3:40 PM

To: pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

Subject: Pharmwaste Digest, Vol 24, Issue 14

 

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When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific

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Today's Topics:

 

   1. RE: Pharmwaste from Dog Parks? (Barry Fernandez)

   2. RE: Pharmwaste from Dog Parks? (Bloom, Raanan)

 

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Message: 1

Date: Fri, 26 Oct 2007 19:32:12 -0400

From: "Barry Fernandez" <Barry at clean-fuels.net>

Subject: RE: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from Dog Parks?

To: "Waters, Tom" <twaters at seminolecountyfl.gov>,        "Eddie Becker"

            <eddie_becker at yahoo.com>, <Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us>

Message-ID:

            

<5761487EDEA23445AAE9E0C3D85A5FA104180B at cleanfuels02.Clean-Fuels.local>

            

Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

 

I have to agree with Tom here.

 

Even if you successfully collect it, there's no meaningful way to treat

it. 

In the grand scheme of pollutants, I think medicated dog park urine is

probably the literal drop in the bucket. 

When you consider the research, development and implementation (if it

ever makes it that far) the money could be more wisely spent on

stormwater runoff that rinses the streets into the same streams and

rivers victimized by dog Prozac.

 

An alternative would be to make all dog parks available only to drug

free canines.

 

Our Maltese has me considering medication... for myself.

 

Best Regards,

Barry

 

Clean Fuels of Florida, Inc.

D. Barry Fernandez, President

2635 NE 4th Avenue

Pompano Beach, FL 33064

Tel:  954-791-9588

Fax: 954-791-9366

Toll Free: 800-725-8711

barry at clean-fuels.net

www.clean-fuels.net

 

 

 

 

 

 

________________________________

 

From: Waters, Tom [mailto:twaters at seminolecountyfl.gov]

Sent: Friday, October 26, 2007 5:02 PM

To: Eddie Becker; Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

Subject: RE: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from Dog Parks?

 

 

Well, this isn't going to be a real popular response.  However, I

personally feel that runoff from dog parks is a real stretch.  My points

of concern include:

 

*       How would you propose collecting urine in a "park?"  Are you

going to pave it with everything sloped to drains?  So much for green

space. 

*       Then you're going to have to cover it to keep the rainwater from

discharging to the sanitary sewer.  Now we have a dog pole barn - not a

park. 

*       From everything I have seen there is not a treatment system that

will remove medications in wastewater treatment plants; at least a a

reasonable cost.  If such systems were availalbe we wouldn't be

preaching not to flush unwanted medications.    

*       For what it's worth, I don't think there is a real comparison

between dog parks and feed lots.  There's not much room on a feed lot

for the cattle to run.   

*       What about the cost?  It is tough enough to get land for a dog

park. 

 

The town I live in (not work in) has a temporary dog park with a big

push toward building a permanent one.  There is no doubt in my mind that

if a system to collect and treat urine was required it would be dropped

like smelly dog pooh. 

 

 

 

I know I am way off base with many of you, but I think there is a lot

more to be done, before we worry about dog parks. 

 

 

 

Tom Waters

 

 

 

PS - Now I'm feeling bad because my rescued lab has to get cortisone

shots for allergies and the shots make him drink more water and the

water makes him urinate more.  (Please do not send me your alternative

solutions to the cortisone shots - I have enough already.) 

 

 

 

 

 

________________________________

 

From: pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us

[mailto:pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us] On Behalf Of Eddie

Becker

Sent: Wednesday, October 24, 2007 4:18 PM

To: Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

Subject: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from Dog Parks?

 

 

Does anyone know of any environmental or pharmaceutical testing at dog

parks or dog runs.  I am working on dog park regulations and since dogs

are probably the second most medicated species (everything from

antibiotics to Prozac) - it seems prudent to recommend the appropriate

disposal of urine in dog parks, rather then letting it flow untreated

into steams and rivers.  Any pointers would be much appreciated. 

Eddie Becker

Washington, DC

 

 

-****Florida has a very broad Public Records Law. Virtually all written

communications to or from State and Local Officials and employees are

public records available to the public and media upon request. Seminole

County policy does not differentiate between personal and business

emails. E-mail sent on the County system will be considered public and

will only be withheld from disclosure if deemed confidential pursuant to

State Law.****-

 

 

-****Florida has a very broad Public Records Law. Virtually all written

communications to or from State and Local Officials and employees are

public records available to the public and media upon request. Seminole

County policy does not differentiate between personal and business

emails. E-mail sent on the County system will be considered public and

will only be withheld from disclosure if deemed confidential pursuant to

State Law.****-

 

 

 <http://e-mail-servers.com/845746b108bf20ca0617a84ff92e8ce9worker.jpg> 

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Message: 2

Date: Sun, 28 Oct 2007 18:39:09 -0400

From: "Bloom, Raanan" <Raanan.Bloom at fda.hhs.gov>

Subject: RE: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from Dog Parks?

To: Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

Message-ID:

            <43F38EE025F1E448BC37D6050C58B6F8017E88B8 at FMD3VS012.fda.gov>

Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

 

Veterinary drugs for companion animals are regulated by FDA's Center for

Veterinary Medicine (http://www.fda.gov/cvm/

<BLOCKED::http://www.fda.gov/cvm/> ).  

 

Vaccines for animals are regulated by USDA

(http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/vet_biologics/

<BLOCKED::http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/vet_biologics/> )

 

________________________________

 

From: pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us

[mailto:pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us] On Behalf Of Eddie

Becker

Sent: Friday, October 26, 2007 5:55 PM

To: Volkman, Jennifer; Nancy Busen; Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

Subject: RE: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from Dog Parks?

 

 

Jennifer you have good reason to be concerned about the health of your

pet.

 

The pharmaceuticals that go into food producing animals (poultry, beef,

swine, etc)  are regulated but pharmaceuticals that go into companion

animals (cats, dogs, birds etc.) are hardly regulated at all.  Which was

also the case with animal food - hence little or no regulation of pet

food prior to the big melamine pet food scandal.  

 

Because of lack of oversight, it is difficult to get a handle on the

quantity of pharmaceuticals ingested by dogs.   But circumstantial

evidence suggests high and growing usage.  

According to the 2007-2008 National Pet Owners Survey, 

There are 74.8 million dogs in the U.S and 88.3 million cats.

And for the total number of pets, (dogs, cats, birds, fish, etc.) the

U.S. spend $9.2 billion on Vet Care and $9.3 billion on Supplies and

Over the Counter medicine.  Compiled by the  American Pet Products

Manufacturers Association, 

http://www.appma.org/press_industrytrends.asp

 

 

"Volkman, Jennifer" <Jennifer.Volkman at state.mn.us> wrote: 

 

            I have heard that veterinarian pharms are regulated differently

than those used for humans, in that full disclosure of ingredients is

not required. For example, we've been able to relatively easily research

and summarize the amount of mercury present in flu vaccines produced by

different manufacturers.  The same information is not publicly available

for animal vaccines.  I think my dog has a mild form of autism...  We

just got our first dog and I never thought about it before earlier this

week when I was reviewing mercury in flu vaccines.  I specify

mercury-free for the kids but not the dog, I feel like a bad mother!

             

            There are probably parallels to studies of animal feedlots?  I

think I've seen a few of those studies on this list serv.  Maybe

different pharms, but good info on migration to surface and ground

water?

 

                        -----Original Message-----

                        From: pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us

[mailto:pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us] On Behalf Of Eddie

Becker

                        Sent: Friday, October 26, 2007 2:12 PM

                        To: Nancy Busen; Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

                        Subject: RE: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from Dog Parks?

                        

                        

                        Dear Nancy, As a dog lover myself, who wants to do
the

right thing, I hear what you are saying.  I support dog parks and think

they could be part of the solution.  Sending dog park runoff to waste

treatment plants that eventually will remove the more environmentally

disruptive pharmaceutical pollutants is a better solution then letting

dog park runoff flow untreated into steams and rivers  

                        

                        But as far as I can tell.  No one has yet tested

established dog park run off for pharmaceuticals! So right now my

hypothesis is just that.

                        

                        A useful list of pharmaceuticals routinely used on

companion animals, can be found at a site owned and operated by

practicing veterinarians.

                        

                        Below is a list of conditions treated with various

drugs, the long list can be viewed if you follow the URL below

            

http://www.peteducation.com/category_summary.cfm?cls=0&Cat=1303

                        

                        Summary of Subcategories: In Companion animal drug
use

from

            

http://www.peteducation.com/category_summary.cfm?cls=0&Cat=1303

                        

                            * Administering Drugs & Nutraceuticals

                            * Antibiotics

                            * Antidotes

                            * Antifungal Medications

                            * Antihistamines

                            * Antiprotozoal Medications

                            * Anti-inflammatories (non-steroids)

                            * Behavior Modification Medications

                            * Central Nervous System Medications

                            * Digestive Tract, Liver, and Pancreas
Medications

                            * Diuretics ('Water Pills')

                            * Ear & Skin Medications

                            * Eye (Ophthalmic) Medications

                            * Flea - Tick - External Parasite Treatments

                            * Heart & Blood Pressure Medications

                            * Heartworm Preventives and Treatments

                            * Hormones - Endocrine - Reproduction-related

Treatments

                            * Immune System - Anti-cancer Treatments

                            * Pain Relievers

                            * Respiratory System Treatments

                            * Urinary Tract & Kidney Medications

                            * Wormers and Anti-parasitics

                            * Vitamins - Minerals - Electrolytes -

Nutraceuticals

                        

                        Additional Articles:

                        

                            * Compounding Medications

                            * Drugs to Avoid in Pregnant or Nursing Cats

                            * Drugs to Avoid in Pregnant or Nursing Dogs

                            * Generic Medications

                            * Veterinarians Allowed to Prescribe
'Extra-label'

Drugs

                        

                        

                        Nancy Busen <NBusen at bentonvillear.com> wrote: 

 

                                    I work with a dog rescue and the mere
thought of

this makes me smile. We are pooper scoopers but I'm going to have to try

to envision an alternative for urine! Thanks for the day brightener!

                                     

                                    We are however, working on a program for
our

county and ultimately the state of Arkansas to get the unused pharms out

of circulation.

                                     

                                    Let me know how it works out with the
dogs. 

                                     

                                    Nancy Busen

                                    City of Bentonville

                                    Lab/Pretreatment Supervisor

                                    1901 N.E. 'A' Street

                                    Bentonville, AR 72712

                                    479-271-3160

                                    Fax: 479-271-3163

                                     

                                    Protect Tomorrow, TODAY

                                     

                                    

                                    

________________________________

 

                                    From:
pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us

[mailto:pharmwaste-bounces at lists.dep.state.fl.us] On Behalf Of Eddie

Becker

                                    Sent: Wednesday, October 24, 2007 3:18
PM

                                    To: Pharmwaste at lists.dep.state.fl.us

                                    Subject: [Pharmwaste] Pharmwaste from
Dog Parks?

                                    

                                    

                                    Does anyone know of any environmental or

pharmaceutical testing at dog parks or dog runs.  I am working on dog

park regulations and since dogs are probably the second most medicated

species (everything from antibiotics to Prozac) - it seems prudent to

recommend the appropriate disposal of urine in dog parks, rather then

letting it flow untreated into steams and rivers.  Any pointers would be

much appreciated.  

                                    Eddie Becker

                                    Washington, DC

                                     

 

                        

                        

 

 

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