[Pharmwaste] FDA taking a closer look at "antibacterial' soap, and On the Need and Speed of Regulating Triclosan and Triclocarban in the United States

DeBiasi, Deborah (DEQ) Deborah.DeBiasi at deq.virginia.gov
Thu Apr 3 16:33:55 EDT 2014

FDA Taking Closer Look at 'Antibacterial' Soap

[hand washing FDA inspector 350x250]
[close up view of Drug Facts label from a bottle of hand soap showing the Active Ingredient Triclosan]
Chemicals added to antibacterial soaps, such as triclosan, are listed on the Drug Facts label.
[Red envelope icon for Govdelivery]
On this page:
When you're buying soaps and body washes, do you reach for the bar or bottle labeled "antibacterial"? Are you thinking that these products, in addition to keeping you clean, will reduce your risk of getting sick or passing on germs to others?

Not necessarily, according to experts at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Every day, consumers use antibacterial soaps and body washes at home, work, school and in other public settings. Especially because so many consumers use them, FDA believes that there should be clearly demonstrated benefits to balance any potential risks.

In fact, there currently is no evidence that over-the-counter (OTC) antibacterial soap products are any more effective at preventing illness than washing with plain soap and water, says Colleen Rogers, Ph.D., a lead microbiologist at FDA.

Moreover, antibacterial soap products contain chemical ingredients, such as triclosan and triclocarban, which may carry unnecessary risks given that their benefits are unproven.

"New data suggest that the risks associated with long-term, daily use of antibacterial soaps may outweigh the benefits," Rogers says. There are indications that certain ingredients in these soaps may contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and may have unanticipated hormonal effects that are of concern to FDA.

In light of these data, the agency issued a proposed rule on Dec. 16, 2013 that would require manufacturers to provide more substantial data to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps. The proposed rule covers only those consumer antibacterial soaps and body washes that are used with water. It does not apply to hand sanitizers, hand wipes or antibacterial soaps that are used in health care settings such as hospitals.

According to Rogers, the laboratory tests that have historically been used to evaluate the effectiveness of antibacterial soaps do not directly test the effect of a product on infection rates. That would change with FDA's current proposal, which would require studies that directly test the ability of an antibacterial soap to provide a clinical benefit over washing with non-antibacterial soap, Rogers says.
back to top<http://www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm378393.htm#top>
What Makes a Soap "Antibacterial?"
Antibacterial soaps (sometimes called antimicrobial or antiseptic soaps) contain certain chemical ingredients that plain soaps do not. These ingredients are added to many consumer products in an effort to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination.

A large number of liquid soaps labeled "antibacterial" contain triclosan, an ingredient of concern to many environmental and industry groups. Animal studies have shown that triclosan may alter the way hormones work in the body. While data showing effects in animals don't always predict effects in humans, these studies are of concern to FDA as well, and warrant further investigation to better understand how they might affect humans.

In addition, laboratory studies have raised the possibility that triclosan contributes to making bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Such resistance can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of medical treatments.

Moreover, recent data suggest that exposure to these active ingredients is higher than previously thought, raising concerns about the potential risks associated with their use regularly and over time.

back to top<http://www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm378393.htm#top>
A Chance to Weigh In
FDA encourages consumers, clinicians, environmental groups, scientists, industry representatives and others to discuss and weigh in on the proposed rule and the data it discusses. The comment period extends for 180 days.

In the meantime, FDA is emphasizing that hand washing is one of the most important steps people can take to avoid getting sick and to prevent spreading germs to others. Another good source for tips and information about benefits of appropriate hand washing is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Consumers can go to www.cdc.gov/handwashing<http://www.cdc.gov/handwashing>.

How do you tell if a product is antibacterial? Most antibacterial products have the word "antibacterial" on the label. Also, a Drug Facts label on a soap or body wash is a sure sign a product contains antibacterial ingredients. Cosmetics must list the ingredients, but are not required to carry a Drug Facts Label.
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FDA and EPA Working in Tandem on Triclosan
FDA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been closely collaborating on science and regulatory issues related to triclosan. This joint effort will help to ensure government-wide consistency in the regulation of the chemical.

The two agencies are reviewing the effects of triclosan from two different perspectives.

EPA regulates the use of triclosan as a pesticide, and is in the process of updating its assessment of the effects of triclosan when it is used in pesticides. FDA's focus is on the effects of triclosan when it is used by consumers on a regular basis in hand soaps and body washes. By sharing information, the two agencies will be better able to measure the exposure and effects of triclosan and how these differing uses of triclosan may affect human health.

For more information on EPA's most recent assessment of triclosan, see:

EPA re-evaluates each pesticide active ingredient every 15 years. EPA's Preliminary Work Plan for the triclosan risk assessment, can be found in docket EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0811 at www.regulations.gov<http://www.regulations.gov>.

This article appears on FDA's Consumer Updates page<http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/default.htm>, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.
Dec. 16, 2013



On the Need and Speed of Regulating Triclosan and Triclocarban in the United States

Rolf U. Halden<http://pubs.acs.org/action/doSearch?action=search&author=Halden%2C+R+U&qsSearchArea=author> *<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#cor1>
Center for Environmental Security, The Biodesign Institute, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, Tempe, Arizona 85287, United States
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2014, 48 (7), pp 3603–3611
DOI: 10.1021/es500495p
Publication Date (Web): March 3, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
*Phone: (480) 727-0893; fax: (480) 965-6603); e-mail: halden at asu.edu<mailto:halden at asu.edu>.
Rolf Halden is the Founding Director of the Center for Environmental Security at the Biodesign Institute and professor in the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment at Arizona State University, as well as cofounding member and adjunct faculty at the Center for Water and Health of the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. Trained as a biologist and engineer, Rolf’s primary interests are in identifying environmental stressors of human and ecological concern and devising engineering and regulatory solutions. Rolf is a special government employee of the FDA, served as a voting member on its 2005 expert panel and presented on antimicrobials at the National Academies and on Capitol Hill.
Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene<http://pubs.acs.org/topic/industrial_hygiene>
[Abstract Image]<javascript:void(0);>
The polychlorinated aromatic antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban are in widespread use for killing microorganisms indiscriminately, rapidly, and by nonspecific action. While their utility in healthcare settings is undisputed, benefits to users of antimicrobial personal care products are few to none. Yet, these latter, high-volume uses have caused widespread contamination of the environment, wildlife, and human populations. This feature article presents a timeline of scientific evidence and regulatory actions in the U.S. concerning persistent polychlorinated biocides, showing a potential path forward to judicious and sustainable uses of synthetic antimicrobials, including the design of greener and safer next-generation alternatives.
Antimicrobial agents are both a boon and threat to human health, with questions about their proper design, useful application, disposal and regulatory framework looming large for scientists, the medical community, regulators and consumers of antiseptic personal care products.
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, it was discovered that the substitution on aromatic rings of hydrogen atoms with chlorine, yielded a novel chemistry of powerful biocides, including antimicrobials.(1)<JavaScript:void(0);> The resultant synthetic organohalides, which are either absent or rare in natural environments,(2, 3)<JavaScript:void(0);> immediately were put to large volume, worldwide use as biocides. However, within a few years, many of these compounds and formulations showed adverse effects, including human toxicity, ecotoxicity, and unwanted environmental persistence and bioaccumulation, quickly leading to regulatory bans and phase-outs.(1, 4)<JavaScript:void(0);> For example, hexachlorophene, introduced in 1948 as a binuclear aromatic organohalide carrying six chlorine substituents,(5)<JavaScript:void(0);> was banned from most uses by the 1970s.(6, 7)<JavaScript:void(0);> Curiously, triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS), two persistent antimicrobials first introduced to commerce in 1957 and 1964, respectively,(8)<JavaScript:void(0);> feature a very similar chemistry (i.e., two benzene rings carrying multiple chlorines) yet continue to be produced and consumed to this day at high volume.(9, 10)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Indeed, the consumption of TCS and TCC and the abundance of antimicrobial products have increased in the U.S. and abroad over the past two decades, due to relaxed regulation, aggressive and widespread advertising, and media reports driving fears of potent and sometimes lethal microbial infections acquired in everyday-life by unsuspecting victims. This multibillion dollar market has saturated supermarkets worldwide and vastly accelerated the consumption of antimicrobial products; today, TCC and more so TCS can be found in soaps, detergents, clothing, carpets, paints, plastics, toys, school supplies, and even in pacifiers, with over 2000 antimicrobial products available in 2014‘s $1.4 billion U.S. market alone.(9, 11)<JavaScript:void(0);> Despite labeling requirements, consumer awareness of harmful active ingredients in household products remains low.(12)<JavaScript:void(0);> By contrast, TCC sees far more limited applications, mostly in bar soap formulated to concentrations of about 2% by weight, higher than the 0.1–0.5% content of TCS-enabled antimicrobial products. Consumers reaching for a random soap on U.S. supermarket shelves, likely bring home a product containing either TCS or TCC. In 1999/2000, TCS or TCC were present in 75% of liquid soaps and 29% of bar soaps in the U.S. market.(13)<JavaScript:void(0);> Today, these numbers may be even higher.
More than a decade into the accelerated use of polychlorinated aromatic antimicrobials, there now are unmistakable signs of these chemicals taking a toll on the health of the environment(14, 15)<JavaScript:void(0);> and possibly on susceptible human populations.(16)<JavaScript:void(0);> This situation has drawn an increased scrutiny by agencies in the U.S., Canada(17)<JavaScript:void(0);> and abroad, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),(18, 19)<JavaScript:void(0);> Food and Drug Administration (FDA),(20)<JavaScript:void(0);> as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,(21)<JavaScript:void(0);> and the European Union.(10)<JavaScript:void(0);> On the state-level, efforts have begun to curtail the use of antimicrobials(22)<JavaScript:void(0);> after the discovery of TCS, TCC, and their dioxin-like chemical progeny in Minnesota’s treasured water resources.(23, 24)<JavaScript:void(0);>
In parallel to the discovery of environmental pollution and new health risks of antimicrobials,(25, 26)<JavaScript:void(0);> concerns about the emergence of microbial pathogens resistant to multiple groups of antibiotics of medical import(27)<JavaScript:void(0);> have triggered the need for reassessing the status quo of antimicrobial usage.(28)<JavaScript:void(0);> The present feature article takes a look at the knowledge timeline concerning TCC and TCS, starting with their mid 20th century introduction into commerce and culminating with an assessment of today’s information gaps as well as a glimpse of what the future may hold for the age-old chemical war on microbes.(29)<JavaScript:void(0);>
How Environmental Contamination with Antimicrobials Was Discovered
Enabled by advances in analytical chemistry detection methods, most notably gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively), TCS and TCC emerged as important environmental pollutants in disparate times and ways.
Triclosan—a broadspectrum bacteriostat and fungicide(30)<JavaScript:void(0);>—garnered the attention of environmental chemists soon after its large volume use in the early 1970s. After its patenting in 1964 and worldwide production, TCS was detected within 14 years as an environmental contaminant, first in U.S. wastewater, river water, and sediment,(31, 32)<JavaScript:void(0);> and shortly thereafter in its methylated form, methyl-TCS, in fish from Tokyo Bay.(33)<JavaScript:void(0);> These early and subsequent environmental detections of TCS were enabled by its amenability to GC-MS analysis.(33, 34)<JavaScript:void(0);> Initially, these detections went without much notice. This changed in 2002, however, when the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported TCS as one of the top 10 contaminants of American rivers in its first national reconnaissance of 95 pharmaceuticals, hormones, and organic wastewater contaminants.(35, 36)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Triclocarban—a fungicide and bacteriostat with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)(37)<JavaScript:void(0);>—emerged as a contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) much later, enabled by LC-MS rather than GC-MS detection techniques. Contrary to TCS, TCC cannot be analyzed by standard GC methods, thereby concealing for decades TCC’s presence in environmental samples acquired, extracted and analyzed for the occurrence of anthropogenic pollutants. For TCC to travel through a standard GC column and be detected, its reactive groups first need to be derivatized.(38)<JavaScript:void(0);> Relief from this conundrum arrived in 2004 with a simple LC-MS technique allowing direct detection of underivatized TCC.(39)<JavaScript:void(0);> Use of this tool on samples from Baltimore, Maryland, showed the presence of TCC in every urban stream monitored.(39)<JavaScript:void(0);> When applied to the city’s groundwater, drinking water, wastewater, and sewage sludge, TCC was detected in many of these matrices and consistently in samples also containing TCS.(8)<JavaScript:void(0);> Significant co-occurrence of TCC and TCS (R2 = 0.988) can be easily understood from their similar uses, chemical structures, and down-the-drain disposal mode. Upon entering USGS national data on TCS(35)<JavaScript:void(0);> into the forecasting algorithm, TCC emerged in 2005 as a previously unrecognized CEC that had been overlooked by environmental analysts for almost half a century; it was predicted to rank in the top 10 CECs in occurrence rate and in the top 20 in maximum concentration among 96 water pollutants.(8)<JavaScript:void(0);> Follow-up research using tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmed these predictions(40)<JavaScript:void(0);> and adoption of LC-based analytical tools by laboratories around the world quickly accelerated the discovery of TCC pollution in the environment and in humans.(41-45)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Today, TCS and TCC rank in the list of top contaminants of concern worldwide.(36)<JavaScript:void(0);> For example, U.S. streams have a 60–100% likelihood of containing detectable quantities of TCS and TCC.(8, 23)<JavaScript:void(0);> TCS has been detected in drinking water resources,(14, 46)<JavaScript:void(0);> 75% of urine samples representative of the U.S. population,(47)<JavaScript:void(0);> 97% of representative U.S. breast milk samples,(48)<JavaScript:void(0);> and combined TCS and TCC constitute over 60% of the total mass of 96 pharmaceuticals detectable in municipal sludge using EPA Method 1694.(49-51)<JavaScript:void(0);> Indeed, the environmental ubiquity of both chemicals has escalated such that TCS, TCC or both compounds are now detectable in house dust worldwide,(52-54)<JavaScript:void(0);> in ocean water,(55)<JavaScript:void(0);> and locations as remote as the water loop of spacecraft.(56)<JavaScript:void(0);> To understand this phenomenon of ubiquitous pollution, it is important to examine their production rates, distribution mechanisms, and long-term persistence upon environmental release. This behavior may be understood best when viewed through the lens of green chemistry(57)<JavaScript:void(0);> and engineering.(58)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Are TCS and TCC Sustainable Chemicals?
Sustainably produced green chemicals serve their intended purpose without creating hazardous conditions for either people or the planet during chemical production, use, and following disposal.(1, 57)<JavaScript:void(0);> Of particular concern for the EPA are chemicals featuring one or multiple of the following characteristics: (i) Persistence in the environment, (ii) Bioaccumulation in animals and humans; and (iii) Toxicity to humans and ecosystems.(59, 60)<JavaScript:void(0);> As with other problematic chemicals,(61)<JavaScript:void(0);> early warnings existed for decades concerning PBT properties of TCS and TCC, and the unsustainability of their large-volume uses.(33, 62, 63)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Life Cycle of TCS and TCC
The cradle-to-grave life cycle of TCS and TCC can be characterized as an open loop that violates multiple principles of green chemistry and engineering.(1, 57, 58)<JavaScript:void(0);> Structurally related to highly toxic and carcinogenic dioxins, TCS had been labeled a predioxin as early as 1993 by the U.S. EPA. Technical grade TCS contains traces of the most toxic member of the dioxin family, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (17.2 – 1,712 ng/kg), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (0.7 – 207.3 ng/kg).(64)<JavaScript:void(0);> Concerns over dioxins in TCS have motivated U.S. producers of antimicrobial products to source TCS from tightly monitored European chemical suppliers as opposed to lower-cost competitors in the Asian markets.(65)<JavaScript:void(0);> Furthermore, mixing of TCS with chlorinated drinking water can result in the formation of carcinogenic chloroform(66)<JavaScript:void(0);> and, upon release into surface water and irradiation with sunlight, of additional toxic polychlorinated dioxins(67)<JavaScript:void(0);> and less toxic dichlorinated dioxins, for example, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.(67)<JavaScript:void(0);> Similarly, TCC also contains toxic, carcinogenic manufacturing byproducts, such as 4-chloroaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline, and can release more of these carcinogens upon chemical, physical, and biological attack.(68, 69)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Durations of utility, i.e., useful lifespans, of TCS and TCC in personal care products are short, on the order of seconds,(70)<JavaScript:void(0);> but their environmental after-lives are much longer, measured at time-scales of up to several decades.(71-73)<JavaScript:void(0);> Upon disposal by consumers, both compounds are washed down the drain and typically are conveyed to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These facilities remove both TCS and TCC from raw sewage at a high efficiency of 97–98%,(74, 75)<JavaScript:void(0);> leading to low ng/L levels in effluent discharged to surface waters.(76-83)<JavaScript:void(0);> However, removal from sewage does not necessarily equal degradation. During wastewater treatment, both antimicrobials distribute themselves preferentially into carbon- and lipid-rich sewage sludge, thereby accumulating in this abundant byproduct of biological sewage treatment.(74, 75)<JavaScript:void(0);> During anaerobic sludge digestion, losses can occur as a result of biodegradation of TCS and TCC but concentrations also may increase due to a reduction in volume by gasification of natural organics to methane.(76, 84)<JavaScript:void(0);> Levels of TCS and TCC in digested sewage sludge as high as 133 and 441 mg/kg dry weight, respectively, have been reported by the EPA; however, mean concentrations are closer to 16 ± 65 and 39 ± 59 mg/kg dry weight (±standard deviation), respectively.(85)<JavaScript:void(0);> Antimicrobials arriving at U.S. WWTPs in substantial quantities (227 000–454 000 kg/y for TCC and 170 000–970 000 kg/yr for TCS)(8)<JavaScript:void(0);> are known to break through WWTPs and subsequently can harm algae in surface waters at ng/L concentrations.(86)<JavaScript:void(0);> Detected concentrations have been observed to exceed an acute-based predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 4.7 ng/L in the River Elbe at 75% of monitoring locations,(36)<JavaScript:void(0);> and can accumulate in sediments to mg/kg levels,(14, 71, 87, 88)<JavaScript:void(0);> where they may persist for several decades.(71)<JavaScript:void(0);> In the U.S., sewage sludge is either incinerated (15% of total volume) which can release more carcinogenic dioxins from TCS,(24, 89)<JavaScript:void(0);> or deposited in landfills (30%) and on land (55%), from where antimicrobials and their carcinogenic transformation products may leach into adjacent surface water to impact the composition of microbial communities.(90, 91)<JavaScript:void(0);> Antimicrobials applied as sewer sludge on land constitute a pathway for transfer of these chemicals into animal feed and crops destined for human consumption.(92-94)<JavaScript:void(0);> The volume of antimicrobials reentering the environment in sewage sludge after initial successful capture from wastewater is substantial; 57 000 ± 233 000 and 140 000 ± 211 000 kg/yr of TCS and TCC, respectively, are applied on U.S. land annually; for TCC, this is equivalent to a staggering 4.8–48.2% of its total U.S. consumption volume.(95)<JavaScript:void(0);> Crops shown to take up antimicrobials from soil include barley, meadow fescue, carrots, and pinto beans.(94, 96, 97)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Human Exposure to TCS and TCC
Human exposure to antimicrobials occurs mostly as a result of elective topical application to the human body. Showering for 15 min with a 0.6% TCC containing antimicrobial soaps was demonstrated to lead to concentrations in the blood of volunteers sufficiently high to potentially cause local inhibition of enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase.(42, 98)<JavaScript:void(0);> Use of TCS-containing toothpaste, typically formulated to 0.3% by weight, is another important source of human exposure.(99)<JavaScript:void(0);> Other known or suspected human exposure routes of lesser importance include the inhalation of antimicrobial-laden house dust,(52-54)<JavaScript:void(0);> consumption of contaminated drinking water,(100)<JavaScript:void(0);> and ingestion of food contaminated with antimicrobials either during the growing season(93, 94)<JavaScript:void(0);> or postharvesting from antimicrobial-containing packaging materials.(101, 102)<JavaScript:void(0);> Unsuspected environmental exposures to TCS and TCC have attracted attention by news media and the general public but the magnitude of these exposures is easily eclipsed by elective, topical use of antimicrobial personal care products.(42, 98)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Toxicity of TCS and TCC to Humans
TCS and TCC are known toxicants but there still is a paucity of data on adverse effects in humans from elective and incidental environmental exposures.(48, 99, 103)<JavaScript:void(0);> Isolated early reports of infant deaths in the U.S. and Europe emphasized the need for caution but remain an anomaly, caused by misuse of antimicrobials in conditions not applicable to present day uses.(104-106)<JavaScript:void(0);> Acute and chronic health effects of TCS and TCC observed in humans and animals following exposure include irritation of eyes and skin,(30, 107)<JavaScript:void(0);> sensitization to aeroallergens and food,(108)<JavaScript:void(0);> immunologic reactions such as allergies,(16, 108-110)<JavaScript:void(0);> developmental and reproductive toxicity,(111-113)<JavaScript:void(0);> inhibition of muscle function,(114)<JavaScript:void(0);> as well as in vivo genotoxicity.(115)<JavaScript:void(0);> While limited, the number of studies involving human subjects is increasing.(98, 104-106, 108-110, 116)<JavaScript:void(0);>
TCS and TCC as Endocrine Disruptors
An emerging additional toxic outcome of concern is endocrine disruption,(117)<JavaScript:void(0);> meaning an interfering of TCS and TCC with essential signaling systems in animals and humans, thereby adversely affecting development, sexual maturation, metabolism, and behavior.(118, 119)<JavaScript:void(0);> Endocrine disruption was observed after exposure of male rats to TCC,(120)<JavaScript:void(0);> of rats to TCS,(121-124)<JavaScript:void(0);> and of frogs to TCS.(26)<JavaScript:void(0);> Of particular human health concern are the adverse effects of TCS on thyroid homeostasis and of TCC on reproductive health.(111, 121, 123, 125)<JavaScript:void(0);>
TCS and TCC as Protagonists of Antibiotic Drug Resistance
A long recognized potential human health threat of antimicrobials is their ability to induce cross-resistance to medically important antibiotics in human pathogens and commensal microbes, thereby turning environmental microbial communities into a reservoir of antibiotic drug resistance.(27, 63, 126-128)<JavaScript:void(0);> Concerns about TCS-induced cross-resistance to antibiotics used in human medicine were voiced as early as 2001(129)<JavaScript:void(0);> and have since been substantiated by scientists worldwide.(130)<JavaScript:void(0);> Whereas TCS resistance can decrease susceptibility to as many as seven antibiotics simultaneously,(131)<JavaScript:void(0);> the applicability of such data to environmental settings and the actual risk remain uncertain.(132)<JavaScript:void(0);> Available studies concentrated on household settings(133)<JavaScript:void(0);> rather than on environmental locales, where the development and proliferation of drug resistance is more likely. One such unexplored locale is sewage sludge,(28)<JavaScript:void(0);> where an abundance of pathogens, multiple antimicrobials and extended contact times creates a large and risky setting for the emergence of drug resistance.
Ecotoxicity of TCS and TCC
Ecotoxicological risks also result for other biota enduring antimicrobial contact times that are infinitely longer than the few seconds these persistent antimicrobials reside on consumers’ hands during their intended use. These unwanted long-term exposures of biota to high concentrations of antimicrobials take place in environments not targeted for disinfection.(36)<JavaScript:void(0);> In the built water environment, for example, inputs and accumulation of antimicrobials in activated sludge units during wastewater treatment are of potential concern, as it may diminish treatment efficacy and microbial diversity while also potentially creating reservoirs of drug resistance.(28)<JavaScript:void(0);> Similar risks also exist in soil environments subject to the application of biocide-laden sewage sludge. Here, as mentioned earlier, the proximity of large quantities of commensal and pathogenic bacteria with extremely high levels of antimicrobials is of particular concern, as is the uptake of the compounds into higher organisms, such as plants and animals.
Natural environments also feature multiple compartments where unwanted antimicrobial residues come in immediate and long-term contact with fauna and flora.(36)<JavaScript:void(0);> Here, the native, multicellular biota are known to be orders of magnitude more susceptible to the killing power of antimicrobials than are microorganisms.(14)<JavaScript:void(0);> Contrary to the situation described for hand washing (exposure times of a few seconds), these environmental toxic exposures are not temporal, but rather extend over the entire lifespan of aquatic and terrestrial organisms and across multiple generations. TCS and TCC are 100–1000 times more effective in inhibiting and killing algae, crustaceans and fish than they are in killing microbes.(14)<JavaScript:void(0);> Shallow sediments in surface waters receiving treated wastewater inputs are known to contain high μg/kg to low mg/kg quantities of TCS and TCC, levels that make impossible the survival and activity of many different species. Sediments also represent a latent source of antimicrobials and can release the compounds back into the water column upon disturbance. Application of sewage sludge in forestry and nonagricultural settings also can lead to decade long exposure of plants, soil-dwelling biota and their predators over multiple generations.(14, 72)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of antimicrobials have been observed in multiple organisms, including algae,(14, 86)<JavaScript:void(0);> aquatic blackworms,(134)<JavaScript:void(0);> fish,(33)<JavaScript:void(0);> and even dolphins,(135)<JavaScript:void(0);> whereas affected terrestrial organisms include earth worms(72, 136, 137)<JavaScript:void(0);> and higher species up the food chain.(138)<JavaScript:void(0);> Documented accumulation of antimicrobials in worms and plant material and subsequent uptake by higher organisms is a known pathway for ecological risks from exposure of vertebrae, including songbirds.(15)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Bioaccumulation of antimicrobials also occurs in humans(48)<JavaScript:void(0);> but to a much lesser extent, because well-known detoxification reactions result in the rapid elimination of parental TCS and TCC.(42, 98)<JavaScript:void(0);> Despite this, lipid adjusted steady-state levels of TCS in U.S. breast milk as high as 2.1 mg/kg have been reported.(48)<JavaScript:void(0);> The need for continuous elimination of antimicrobials by the human detoxification machinery has been speculated to potentially prevent expulsion of more harmful agents, such as dioxins, but scientific data are lacking.(139)<JavaScript:void(0);>
How Effective Are Antimicrobials?
Although TCS and TCC are effective in killing microorganisms when applied judiciously by professionals in health care settings,(140)<JavaScript:void(0);> their proliferating use by the general population, which accounts for the vast majority of the chemicals’ production volume, lacks convincing data on health benefits, according to epidemiological studies.(128, 141)<JavaScript:void(0);>
These seemingly contradictory findings between antimicrobials’ efficacy in clinical settings and their failure to perform in household settings can be understood easily when considering the contact time between the chemicals and their microbial targets. Thoroughly designed clinical studies reproducibly yield favorable results from hand washing times of 30 s to several minutes.(140)<JavaScript:void(0);> However, hand-washing routines of the general population differ significantly from this optimal standard. In real-world settings, the application of soaps on the hands of consumers is followed immediately by rinsing away of the active antimicrobial ingredients. Thus, for the majority of household consumers, effective contact times amount to an average of six seconds,(70)<JavaScript:void(0);> too short to provide a measurable impact on antimicrobial efficacy.
In 2005, an expert panel convened by the FDA had concluded by a vote of 11-to-1 that use of antiseptics does not provide a measurable benefit to consumers.(142)<JavaScript:void(0);> This assessment apparently has not changed in years since, as the FDA has issued in late 2013 a notice to industry of its intent to institute tighter regulations in the near future.(20)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Regulatory Framework of Antimicrobials
In the U.S., regulating TCS and TCC has been challenging over the course of the past half century, due in part to the desire to cover multiple uses and multiple compounds under a single umbrella guidance document, namely the topical antimicrobial drug products Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drug Monograph of the FDA(20, 142)<JavaScript:void(0);> (Figure 1<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#fig1>). This regulation was first drafted in 1974, tentatively finalized in 1978, and updated in 1994 but never finalized. In 2010, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) filed a complaint against the FDA in an effort to force the agency to act.(143)<JavaScript:void(0);> This legal action culminated in a consent decree, with the FDA agreeing in 2013 to finalize the monograph, at least with respect to TCS.(144)<JavaScript:void(0);> The year 2014 marks the 40th anniversary of issuance of the yet to be finalized initial draft legislation (Figure 1<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#fig1>). In 1972, in contrast, the FDA had acted much more swiftly, by banning the antimicrobial hexachlorophene(6)<JavaScript:void(0);> over concerns of its neurotoxicity.(145)<JavaScript:void(0);> At the time, hexachlorophene-containing personal care products had multiplied in the market similar to TCS-containing formulations today and adverse effects including accumulation in breast milk also had been reported for hexachlorophene.(146)<JavaScript:void(0);> Technically, the FDA could regulate TCS and TCC over environmental concerns alone but such action would be without precedence; instead, the FDA has deferred to the EPA, which regulates TCS but not TCC as registered pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).(18)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Figure 1. Timeline of scientific and regulatory events concerning the use and occurrence of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) in the United States, with particular emphasis on the Tentative Final Monograph (TFM) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Open Questions
So who should use antimicrobials? For what purpose? And what is the acceptable extent of collateral damage to ecological health and human populations? Answering these questions should best be left to public health experts, physicians, risk assessors, and sustainability scientists. Sixty years into the use of polychlorinated binuclear aromatic antimicrobials, multiple lessons can be learned from the past. Hexachlorophene was responsible for the first bloom of antimicrobial products, giving rise to over 400 hexachlorophene-containing personal care products; this episode lasted only a few years, though, before this active ingredient was banned over concerns of its neurotoxicity.(6)<JavaScript:void(0);> The second bloom in U.S. antimicrobial products from a few dozens to the current count of >2000 was triggered by the FDA’s removal of antimicrobial soaps from the drug category of the Tentative Final Monograph (TFM) in 1994 (Figure 1<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#fig1>). This history suggests that regulatory boundaries are critical in preventing imprudent uses of potentially harmful substances in personal care products.(7)<JavaScript:void(0);> Restricting nonmedical uses of TCS and TCC is an approach championed by diverse scholars and health care professionals, including the American Medical Association (AMA), the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA), an expert group of the American Academy for Microbiology,(147)<JavaScript:void(0);> and members of the American Public Health Association (APHA).(148)<JavaScript:void(0);>
Any known and potential adverse effects of the usage of antimicrobials should be balanced with immediate and measurable benefits reaped. With respect to TCS and TCC, scientific evidence points to known benefits from their application in health care settings by health care professionals, and possibly from TCS-containing toothpaste used by individuals diagnosed with gingivitis.(149)<JavaScript:void(0);> Exclusive sale of TCS/TCC-containing soaps in pharmacies and prescription requirements for TCS in toothpaste may aid in effecting the desirable reduction in unsustainable consumption patterns and with it associated adverse effects. This tiered approach worked well for the now restricted hexachlorophene, whose allowable and prudent applications continue to this date, as a preservative at concentrations of up to 0.1% by weight. Regulations proved effective in throttling back hexachlorophene production; today, the compound is present at levels below the detection limit in U.S. wastewaters, detectable only at low concentrations (0.18–0.37 mg/kg dry weight) in raw and treated sewage sludge, where it accumulates similarly to TCS and TCC.(40)<JavaScript:void(0);>
The question of what collateral damage to people and the planet is acceptable will be informed not only by cost-benefit analyses but also by broader sustainability considerations.(1, 57, 58)<JavaScript:void(0);> Evidence abounds for TCS and TCC to represent nongreen chemicals whose current usage volumes are unsustainable, as indicated by large-scale pollution that needlessly places stress on the environment, animals and human populations.(36, 48)<JavaScript:void(0);> These findings suggest the need for next-generation antimicrobials to overcome some of the identified shortcomings of TCS and TCC, while preserving their essential benefits.
The Future
So what will greener, more sustainable antimicrobials of the future look like? Desirable properties of next-generation antimicrobial include broad-spectrum action and high efficacy toward pathogens but low toxicity to nontarget, multicellular organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial biota and humans. Furthermore, future-use antimicrobials should have no or very low potential for fostering antimicrobial drug resistance, should undergo rapid biodegradation in conventional wastewater treatment plants, and pose no risk of bioaccumulation. Ideally, the compounds also should be sourced from renewable feedstock and lack occupational hazards during production, storage, and use. Upon disposal they should return their benign elemental building blocks to the environment, to complete a more environmentally friendly cradle-to-cradle life-cycle.(150)<JavaScript:void(0);> Studying the behavior of chemicals in WWTPs can provide helpful design clues.(95)<JavaScript:void(0);> Sustainability considerations already are informing the design of green pharmaceuticals,(151, 152)<JavaScript:void(0);> and adopting this approach for antimicrobials promises to yield important benefits to people and the planet.
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
o   Top of Page<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#top>
o   Introduction<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#h1>
o   References<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#h16>
This study was supported in part by the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future and by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) awards 1R01ES015445, 1R01ES020889 and their respective supplements. The content of this work is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the FDA, the NIEHS, or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
·        Reference QuickView<JavaScript:void(0);>
o   Top of Page<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#top>
o   Introduction<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#h1>
o   References<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es500495p#h16>
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Studies on the retention of hexachlorophene (G-11) in human skin
Fahlberg, W. J.; Swan, J. C.; Seastone, C. V.
Journal of Bacteriology (1948), 56 (), 323-8 CODEN: JOBAAY; ISSN:0021-9193.
Hexachlorophine (G-11) was recovered from the skin 2 days after 3 consecutive daily 6-min. applications of 1% soln. in liquid soap. Approx. 10 times less G-11 was recovered from skin after the use of a 2% prepn. in solid soap. Aq. zephiran (1%) exhibited no prolonged residual bacteriostatic effect on skin. Preliminary treatment of the skin with acetone and ether increased and prolonged the bacteriostatic effect of G-11. Whole serum or serum globulin, or egg albumin reduced the effect of G-11. The prolonged bacteriostatic action of G-11 is due to its retention in the skin, and a much larger amt. is retained in a liquid soap vehicle, due perhaps to a larger amt. coming in contact with the skin. The unexpected enhancement of bacteriostasis following defatting of the skin may indicate that a larger reservoir becomes available for retention of G-11. It implies that residual G-11 activity is not due to soln. and retention in the lipoids of the skin.
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Bruch, M. K.; Larson, E.Regulation of topical antimicrobials: history, status and future perspective Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1989, 10 ( 11) 505– 8
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Regulation of topical antimicrobials: history, status and future perspective
Bruch M K; Larson E
Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America (1989), 10 (11), 505-8 ISSN:0899-823X.
Antimicrobial agents used as disinfectants and antiseptics are increasing in epidemiologic importance. The regulation of topical antiseptics has ranged from nonexistent, lax and confusing to inclusion in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over-the-counter (OTC) review of drug ingredients. This article simplifies the complex history, current status and future possibilities for the hospital use of topical antiseptic products.
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Halden, R. U.; Paull, D. H.Co-occurrence of triclocarban and triclosan in U.S. water resources Environ. Sci. Technol.2005, 39 ( 6) 1420– 1426
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref8/cit8&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes049071e> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref8/cit8&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15819193>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref8/cit8&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2MXlsFOmtA%253D%253D>]
Co-Occurrence of Triclocarban and Triclosan in U.S. Water Resources
Halden, Rolf U.; Paull, Daniel H.
Environmental Science and Technology (2005), 39 (6), 1420-1426 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are antimicrobial additives in personal care products. TCS has been studied extensively but the environmental fate of TCC is largely unknown. To address this data gap, quant. structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed and showed the propensity of TCC to persist in various environmental compartments with predicted half-lives of 0.75 days in air to 540 days in sediment. Concns. of both antimicrobials were measured in 42 environmental samples from the Greater Baltimore region (Maryland) using a combination of solid-phase extn., liq. chromatog.-mass spectrometry, and isotope diln. The co-occurrence of TCC and TCS was obsd. due to similar properties, use, disposal, and environmental half-lives. A linear empirical correlation (R2 = 0.9882) fit log-log transformed data from diverse aquatic media, spanning 5 orders of magnitude in concn. TCC occurrence predicted for 85 US streams was statistically indistinguishable from exptl. regional data (α ≤0.05). Annual antimicrobial loads to water resources is probably dominated by activated sludge wastewater treatment facilities (39-67%), followed by trickling filter treatment facilities (31-54%) and combined and sanitary sewer overflows (2-7% and <0.2%, resp.). Results suggested TCC is a previously unrecognized pollutant of US water resources nationwide, likely ranking in the top 10 in occurrence rate and in the top 20 in max. concn. among 96 org. pollutants considered. The magnitude and frequency of TCC pollution (regional, 6750 ng/L, 68%; predicted nationwide for 1999-2000, 1150 ng/L, 60%) were markedly higher than non-peer reviewed nos. (240 ng/L, 30%, US) currently used by USEPA to evaluate TCC ecol. and human health risks.
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Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Triclosan and Antibiotics Resistance. European Union, Ed. 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/triclosan/en/about-triclosan.htm#29 (accessed January 20, 2014) .
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Perencevich, E. N.; Wong, M. T.; Harris, A. D.National and regional assessment of the antibacterial soap market: A step toward determining the impact of prevalent antibacterial soaps Am. J. Infect. Control.2001, 29 ( 5) 281– 3
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National and regional assessment of the antibacterial soap market: a step toward determining the impact of prevalent antibacterial soaps
Perencevich E N; Wong M T; Harris A D
American journal of infection control (2001), 29 (5), 281-3 ISSN:0196-6553.
BACKGROUND: Consumer antibacterial soaps contain triclosan or triclocarban. No scientific data have been published to suggest that the use of antibacterial agents in household products prevents infection, and triclosan resistance mechanisms have recently been identified. Little data are available regarding the prevalence of antibacterial agents contained in consumer soaps. METHODS: In a physician-performed survey of 23 stores in 10 states from December 1999 to April 2000, investigators determined the number of national brand liquid and bar soaps and percent of each containing antibacterial agents sold at national chain, regional grocery, and Internet stores. RESULTS: Antibacterial agents were present in 76% of liquid soaps and 29% of bar soaps available nationally. There were no differences found between national, regional, and Internet stores. CONCLUSION: Overall, 45% of surveyed soaps contain antibacterial agents. With limited documented benefits and experimental laboratory evidence suggesting possible adverse effects on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, consumer antibacterial use of this magnitude should be questioned.
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Chalew, T. E. A.; Halden, R. U.Environmental exposure of aquatic and terrestrial biota to triclosan and triclocarban J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc.2009, 45 ( 1) 4– 13
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref14/cit14&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1111%2Fj.1752-1688.2008.00284.x>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref14/cit14&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXjt1CgsLs%253D>]
Environmental exposure of aquatic and terrestrial biota to triclosan and triclocarban
Chalew, Talia E. A.; Halden, Rolf U.
Journal of the American Water Resources Association (2009), 45 (1), 4-13 CODEN: JWRAF5; ISSN:1093-474X. (Wiley-Blackwell)
The synthetic biocides triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) and triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) are routinely added to a wide array of antimicrobial personal care products and consumer articles. Both compds. can persist in the environment and exhibit toxicity toward a no. of biol. receptors. Recent reports of toxicol. effects in wildlife, human cell cultures, and lab. animals have heightened the interest in the occurrence of these biocide and related toxic effects. The present study aimed to summarize published environmental concns. of biocides and contrast them with toxicity threshold values of susceptible organisms. Environmental occurrences and toxicity threshold values span more than six orders of magnitude in concn. The highest biocide levels, measured in the mid parts-per-million range, were detd. to occur in aquatic sediments and in municipal biosolids destined for land application. Crustacea and algae were identified as the most sensitive species, susceptible to adverse effects from biocide exposures in the parts-per-trillion range. An overlap of environmental concns. and toxicity threshold values was noted for these more sensitive organisms, suggesting potential adverse ecol. effects in aquatic environments. Affirmative evidence for this is lacking, however, since studies examg. environmental occurrences of biocides vis-a-vis the health and diversity of aquatic species have not yet been conducted.
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Snyder, E. H.; O’Connor, G. A.Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) Sci. Total Environ.2013, 442, 437– 444
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref15/cit15&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2012.10.007>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref15/cit15&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23183124>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref15/cit15&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhvVKlt77E>]
Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC)
Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A.
Science of the Total Environment (2013), 442 (), 437-444 CODEN: STENDL; ISSN:0048-9697. (Elsevier B.V.)
Triclocarban (TCC), monitored under the USEPA high prodn. vol. chem. program, is mainly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. This compd. commonly occurs at ppm concns. in wastewater treatment sludge, i.e., biosolids, which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Human and ecol. risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous studies were integrated with existing data to perform a 2-tiered human health and ecol. risk assessment of land applied, biosolids-borne TCC. The 14 exposure pathways identified in the Part 503 Biosolids Rule were expanded, and conservative screening-level hazard quotients (HQ values) were first calcd. to est. risks to humans and a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Tier 1). The majority of biosolids-borne TCC exposure pathways resulted in no screening-level HQ values, indicating significant risks to exposed organisms, including humans, even under worst-case land application scenarios. The 2 pathways for which conservative screening-level HQ values were >1 (Pathway 10: biosolids → soil → soil organism → predator and Pathway 16: biosolids → soil → surface water → aquatic organism) were re-examd. using modified parameters and scenarios (Tier 2). Adjusted HQ values remained >1 for Exposure Pathway 10, except for final adjusted HQ values under a 1-time 5 mg/ha biosolids loading rate for the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Results were used to prioritize recommendations for future biosolids-borne TCC research, including addnl. toxicol. effect and TCC concn. measurements in environmental matrixes at the field level.
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Clayton, E. M. R.; Todd, M.; Dowd, J. B.; Aiello, A. E.The impact of bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the U.S. population, NHANES 2003–2006 Environ. Health Perspect.2011, 119 ( 3) 390– 396
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref16/cit16&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1289%2Fehp.1002883>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref16/cit16&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21062687>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref16/cit16&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXktlentbw%253D>]
The impact of bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the U.S. population, NHANES 2003-2006
Clayton, Erin M. Rees; Todd, Megan; Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Aiello, Allison E.
Environmental Health Perspectives (2011), 119 (3), 390-396 CODEN: EVHPAZ; ISSN:0091-6765. (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services)
Background: Exposure to environmental toxicants is assocd. with numerous disease outcomes, many of which involve underlying immune and inflammatory dysfunction. Objectives: To address the gap between environmental exposures and immune dysfunction, we investigated the assocn. of two endocrine-disrupting compds. (EDCs) with markers of immune function. Methods: Using data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examn. Survey, we compared urinary bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan levels with serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody levels and diagnosis of allergies or hay fever in U.S. adults and children ≥ 6 years of age. We used multivariate ordinary least squares linear regression models to examine the assocn. of BPA and triclosan with CMV antibody titers, and multivariate logistic regression models to investigate the assocn. of these chems. with allergy or hay fever diagnosis. Statistical models were stratified by age (< 18 years and ≥ 18 years). Results: In analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, creatinine levels, family income, and educational attainment, in the ≥ 18-yr age group, higher urinary BPA levels were assocd. with higher CMV antibody titers (p < 0.001). In the < 18-yr age group, lower levels of BPA were assocd. with higher CMV antibody titers (p < 0.05). However, triclosan, but not BPA, showed a pos. assocn. with allergy or hay fever diagnosis. In the < 18-yr age group, higher levels of triclosan were assocd. with greater odds of having been diagnosed with allergies or hay fever (p < 0.01). Conclusions: EDCs such as BPA and triclosan may neg. affect human immune function as measured by CMV antibody levels and allergy or hay fever diagnosis, resp., with differential consequences based on age. Addnl. studies should be done to investigate these findings.
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Erickson, B.Canada calls for triclosan action Chem. Eng. News2012, 90 ( 15) 10– 10
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent QuestionsAssociated with the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED). http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/triclosan/triclosan-questions.htm (accessed January 20, 2014) .
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U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Taking Closer Lookat ‘Antibacterial’ Soap. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm378393.htm (accessed January 20, 2014) .
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Dunbar, E., Lawmakers consider banning triclosan, other chemicals. MPR News2013. http://www.mprnews.org/story/2013/03/12/environment/lawmakers-ban-triclosan (accessed January 20, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Venkatesan, A. K.; Pycke, B. F. G.; Barber, L. B.; Lee, K. E.; Halden, R. U.Occurrence of triclosan, triclocarban, and its lesser chlorinated congeners in Minnesota freshwater sediments collected near wastewater treatment plants J. Hazard. Mater.2012, 229, 29– 35
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref23/cit23&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.jhazmat.2012.05.049>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref23/cit23&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22742731>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref23/cit23&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhtVKnsr%252FN>]
Occurrence of triclosan, triclocarban, and its lesser chlorinated congeners in Minnesota freshwater sediments collected near wastewater treatment plants
Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Pycke, Benny F. G.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; Halden, Rolf U.
Journal of Hazardous Materials (2012), 229-230 (), 29-35 CODEN: JHMAD9; ISSN:0304-3894. (Elsevier B.V.)
The antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), and their assocd. transformation products are of increasing concern as environmental pollutants due to their potential adverse effects on humans and wildlife, including bioaccumulation and endocrine-disrupting activity. Anal. by tandem mass spectrometry of 24 paired freshwater bed sediment samples (top 10 cm) collected by the U.S. Geol. Survey near 12 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Minnesota revealed TCS and TCC concns. of up to 85 and 822 ng/g dry wt. (dw), resp. Concns. of TCS and TCC in bed sediments collected downstream of WWTPs were significantly greater than upstream concns. in 58% and 42% of the sites, resp. Dichloro- and non-chlorinated carbanilides (DCC and NCC) were detected in sediments collected at all sites at concns. of up to 160 and 1.1 ng/g dw, resp. Overall, antimicrobial concns. were significantly higher in lakes than in rivers and creeks, with relative abundances decreasing from TCC > TCS > DCC > NCC. This is the first statewide report on the occurrence of TCS, TCC, and TCC transformation products in freshwater sediments. Moreover, the results suggest biol. or chem. TCC dechlorination products to be ubiquitous in freshwater environments of Minnesota, but whether this transformation occurs in the WWTP or bed sediment remains to be detd.
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Anger, C. T.; Sueper, C.; Blumentrit, D. J.; McNeill, K.; Engstrom, D. R.; Arnold, W. A.Quantification of triclosan, chlorinated triclosan derivatives, and their dioxin photoproducts in lacustrine sediment cores Environ. Sci. Technol.2013, 47 ( 4) 1833– 1843
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref24/cit24&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes3045289> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref24/cit24&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23320506>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref24/cit24&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3sXns1ensQ%253D%253D>]
Quantification of Triclosan, Chlorinated Triclosan Derivatives, and their Dioxin Photoproducts in Lacustrine Sediment Cores
Anger, Cale T.; Sueper, Charles; Blumentritt, Dylan J.; McNeill, Kristopher; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Arnold, William A.
Environmental Science & Technology (2013), 47 (4), 1833-1843 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
When discharged into surface waters via wastewater effluents, triclosan, the antimicrobial agent in handsoaps, and chlorinated triclosan derivs. (CTDs, formed during disinfection with Cl) react photochem. to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. To evaluate the historical exposure of waters to these compds., the levels of triclosan, CTDs, and their derived dioxins were detd. in sediment cores collected from wastewater-impacted Minnesota lakes. The accumulation rates and temporal trends of triclosan, CTDs, and dioxins in aquatic sediments were a function of historical wastewater treatment operations and lake system scale. Cores collected from large-scale riverine systems with many wastewater sources recorded increasing concns. of triclosan, CTDs, and their derived dioxins since the patent of triclosan in 1964. In small-scale lakes with a single wastewater source, the trends were directly attributed to increased triclosan use, local improvements in treatment, and changes in wastewater disinfection since the 1960s. In the lake with no wastewater input, no triclosan or CTDs were detected. Overall, concns. of triclosan, CTDs, and their dioxins were higher in small-scale systems, reflecting a greater degree of wastewater impact. In cores collected in northern MN, the four dioxins derived from triclosan are present prior to the patent of triclosan, suggesting a secondary source. It is clear, however, that triclosan and CTDs are the dominant source of these congeners after 1965 in systems impacted by wastewater.
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Ahn, K. C.; Zhao, B.; Chen, J.; Cherednichenko, G.; Sanmarti, E.; Denison, M. S.; Lasley, B.; Pessah, I. N.; Kultz, D.; Chang, D. P. Y.; Gee, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens Environ. Health Perspect.2008, 116 ( 9) 1203– 1210
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref25/cit25&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1289%2Fehp.11200>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref25/cit25&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18795164>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref25/cit25&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXhtFOis7fO>]
In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: receptor-based bioassay screens
Ahn, Ki Chang; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Jiangang; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Sanmarti, Enio; Denison, Michael S.; Lasley, Bill; Pessah, Isaac N.; Kultz, Dietmar; Chang, Daniel P. Y.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.
Environmental Health Perspectives (2008), 116 (9), 1203-1210 CODEN: EVHPAZ; ISSN:0091-6765. (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services)
Concerns have been raised about the biol. and toxicol. effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) in personal care products. Few studies have evaluated their biol. activities in mammalian cells to assess their potential for adverse effects. In this study, we assessed the activity of TCC, its analogs, and TCS in in vitro nuclear-receptor-responsive and calcium signaling bioassays. We detd. the biol. activities of the compds. in in vitro, cell-based, and nuclear-receptor-responsive bioassays for receptors for aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), and ryanodine (RyR1). Some carbanilide compds., including TCC (1-10 μM), enhanced estradiol (E2)-dependent or testosterone-dependent activation of ER- and AR-responsive gene expression up to 2.5-fold but exhibited little or no agonistic activity alone. Some carbanilides and TCS exhibited weak agonistic and/or antagonistic activity in the AhR-responsive bioassay. TCS exhibited antagonistic activity in both ER- and AR-responsive bioassays. TCS (0.1-10 μM) significantly enhanced the binding of [3H]ryanodine to RyR1 and caused elevation of resting cytosolic [Ca2+] in primary skeletal myotubes, but carbanilides had no effect. Carbanilides, including TCC, enhanced hormone-dependent induction of ER- and AR-dependent gene expression but had little agonist activity, suggesting a new mechanism of action of endocrine-disrupting compds. TCS, structurally similar to noncoplanar ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, exhibited weak AhR activity but interacted with RyR1 and stimulated Ca2+ mobilization. These observations have potential implications for human and animal health. Further investigations are needed into the biol. and toxicol. effects of TCC, its analogs, and TCS.
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Veldhoen, N.; Skirrow, R. C.; Osachoff, H.; Wigmore, H.; Clapson, D. J.; Gunderson, M. P.; Van Aggelen, G.; Helbing, C. C.The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development Aquat. Toxicol2006, 80 ( 3) 217– 227
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref26/cit26&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.aquatox.2006.08.010>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref26/cit26&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=17011055>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref26/cit26&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD28Xht1ersrzI>]
The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development
Veldhoen, Nik; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Osachoff, Heather; Wigmore, Heidi; Clapson, David J.; Gunderson, Mark P.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C.
Aquatic Toxicology (2006), 80 (3), 217-227 CODEN: AQTODG; ISSN:0166-445X. (Elsevier B.V.)
We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concns. of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α and β, basic transcription element binding protein (BTEB) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) gene transcripts. Premetamorphic tadpoles were immersed in environmentally relevant concns. of triclosan and injected with 1 × 10-11 mol/g body wt. 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) or vehicle control. Morphometric measurements and steady-state mRNA levels obtained by quant. PCR were detd. mRNA abundance was also examd. in Xenopus laevis XTC-2 cells treated with triclosan and/or 10 nM T3. Tadpoles pretreated with triclosan concns. as low as 0.15 ± 0.03 μg/L for 4 days showed increased hindlimb development and a decrease in total body wt. following T3 administration. Triclosan exposure also resulted in decreased T3-mediated TRβ mRNA expression in the tadpole tail fin and increased levels of PCNA transcript in the brain within 48 h of T3 treatment whereas TRα and BTEB were unaffected. Triclosan alone altered thyroid hormone receptor α transcript levels in the brain of premetamorphic tadpoles and induced a transient wt. loss. In XTC-2 cells, exposure to T3 plus nominal concns. of triclosan as low as 0.03 μg/L for 24 h resulted in altered thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. Exposure to low levels of triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone-assocd. gene expression and can alter the rate of thyroid hormone-mediated postembryonic anuran development.
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Aiello, A. E.; Marshall, B.; Levy, S. B.; Della-Latta, P.; Larson, E.Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.2004, 48 ( 8) 2973– 2979
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref27/cit27&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1128%2FAAC.48.8.2973-2979.2004>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref27/cit27&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15273108>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref27/cit27&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2cXmtlKqtr8%253D>]
Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community
Aiello, Allison E.; Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart B.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Larson, Elaine
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2004), 48 (8), 2973-2979 CODEN: AMACCQ; ISSN:0066-4804. (American Society for Microbiology)
The possible assocn. between triclosan and bacterial susceptibility to antibiotic was examd. among staphylococci and several species of gram-neg. bacteria (GNB) isolated from the hands of individuals in a community setting. Hand cultures from individuals randomized to using either antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products (including a hand soap contg. 0.2% triclosan) or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for a 1-yr period were taken at baseline and at the end of the year. Although there was no statistically significant assocn. between triclosan MICs and susceptibility to antibiotic, there was an increasing trend in the assocn. the odds ratios (ORs) for all species were compared at baseline (OR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.33 to 1.27) vs. at the end of the year (OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.62 to 1.97) and for GNB alone at baseline (OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.29 to 1.51) vs. the end of year (OR = 2.69, 95%CI = 0.78 to 9.23) regardless of the hand-washing product used. Moreover, triclosan MICs were higher in some of the species compared to earlier reports on household, clin., and industrial isolates, and some of these isolates had triclosan MICs in the range of concns. used in consumer products. The absence of a statistically significant assocn. between elevated triclosan MICs and reduced antibiotic susceptibility may indicate that such a correlation does not exist or that it is relatively small among the isolates that were studied. Still, a relationship may emerge after longer-term or higher-dose exposure of bacteria to triclosan in the community setting.
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Pruden, A.Balancing water sustainability adn public health goals in the face of growing concerns about antibiotic resistance Environ. Sci. Technol.2013, 48, 5– 14
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Blancou, J.History of disinfection from early times until the end of the 18th century Revue scientifique et technique1995, 14 ( 1) 21– 39
[PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref29/cit29&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=7548969>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref29/cit29&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADyaK28%252FltlKhsA%253D%253D>]
History of disinfection from early times until the end of the 18th century
Blancou J
Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) (1995), 14 (1), 21-39 ISSN:0253-1933.
The author describes and analyses the methods of disinfection in use until the end of the 18th century, i.e. before the scientific demonstration of the role of pathogenic microorganisms. These methods are classified into three categories: chemical (by derivatives of sulphur, mercury, copper, and also by alkalis and acids), physical (heating, fumigation, filtration, etc.) and biological (burial). The author concludes that, despite their empiricism, these methods were of great value to those responsible for controlling diseases of animals, as in some cases they were able to eradicate diseases while still ignorant of the causal mechanisms.
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Triclosan.″ Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document; EPA 939-RO-8009; 2008. http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/2340red.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Jungclaus, G.; Avila, V.; Hites, R.Organic compounds in an industrial wastewater: A case study of their environmental impact Environ. Sci. Technol.1978, 12, 88– 96
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref31/cit31&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes60137a015> ], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref31/cit31&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaE1cXhslKltrc%253D>]
Organic compounds in an industrial waste water: a case study of their environmental impact
Jungclaus, Gregory A.; Lopez-Avila, Viorica; Hites, Ronald A.
Environmental Science and Technology (1978), 12 (1), 88-96 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X.
The wastewater and receiving waters and sediments from a specialty chems. manufg. plant are analyzed for org. compds. The concns. of anthropogenic compds. were 15 ppm in the wastewater and 0.2 ppm in the river (receiving) water, but up to several hundred ppm in the sediments. The compn. of the river water reflects the compn. of the wastewater except that some of the compds. appear to degrade or volatilize in the river. Many compds. accumulated in the sediments where they were stable and built up to high concns. Some of the compds. are modified in situ. Various phenols are easily oxidized to quinones; these may be partially reduced back to phenols depending on the redox nature of the environment. Several compds. of known biol. activity (herbicides, bacteriostats, and disinfectants) as well as some potentially toxic chems. such as dichlorodibenzodioxin [64501-00-4] are present in the water. The long-term, low-level exposure to this wide variety of chems. contributed to the lack of biota in this part of the river.
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Hites, R. A.; Lopez-Avila, V.Identification of organic compounds in an industrial wastewater Anal. Chem.1979, 51 ( 14) 1452A– 1456A
[PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref32/cit32&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22793232>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref32/cit32&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaL3cXmsVagtQ%253D%253D>]
Identification of organic compounds in an industrial waste water
Hites, Ronald A.; Lopez-Avila, Viorica
Analytical Chemistry (1979), 51 (14), 1452A-1456A CODEN: ANCHAM; ISSN:0003-2700.
The interpretation of high-pressure liq. chromatog. and gas chromatog./mass spectrometric data in order to identify org. compds. in a complex wastewater from a secialty chems. plant is illustrated. 5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol [3380-34-5], a compd. manufd. in the plant, and related precursors and byproducts were identified.
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Miyazaki, T.; Yamagishi, T.; Matsumoto, M.Residues of 4-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-methoxybenzene(triclosan methyl) in aquatic biota Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.1984, 32 ( 2) 227– 32
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref33/cit33&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1007%2FBF01607490>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref33/cit33&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=6704556>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref33/cit33&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaL2cXhtleru7c%253D>]
Residues of 4-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-methoxybenzene (triclosan methyl) in aquatic biota
Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Yamagishi, Tatsunori; Matsumoto, Masao
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (1984), 32 (2), 227-32 CODEN: BECTA6; ISSN:0007-4861.
Triclosan methyl (I) [4640-01-1] residues were found in 13 of 14 samples (10 fish and 4 shellfish) collected at 11 sampling locations in the Tama River and Tokyo Bay during Sept.-Oct., 1981. I residues in topmouth gudgeon ranged 1-38 ppb (mean 11.6 ppb) but were relatively low in goby fish. In shellfish, the concns. of I residues were: short-necked clam (Tapes philippinarum) 3 ppb; thin-shelled surf clam (Mactra veneriformis) 5 ppb; oyster (Rassostrea gigas) 13 ppb; blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) 20 ppb.
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Lindstrom, A.; Buerge, I. J.; Poiger, T.; Bergqvist, P. A.; Muller, M. D.; Buser, H. R.Occurrence and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater Environ. Sci. Technol.2002, 36 ( 11) 2322– 2329
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref34/cit34&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes0114254> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref34/cit34&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12075785>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref34/cit34&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD38zjtlamuw%253D%253D>]
Occurrence and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater
Lindstrom Anton; Buerge Ignaz J; Poiger Thomas; Bergqvist Per-Anders; Muller Markus D; Buser Hans-Rudolf
Environmental science & technology (2002), 36 (11), 2322-9 ISSN:0013-936X.
The bactericide triclosan and methyl triclosan, an environmental transformation product thereof, were detected in lakes and in a river in Switzerland at concentrations of up to 74 and 2 ng L(-1), respectively. Both compounds were emitted via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with methyl triclosan probably being formed by biological methylation. A regional mass balance for a lake (Greifensee) indicated significant removal of triclosan by processes other than flushing. Laboratory experiments showed that triclosan in the dissociated form was rapidly decomposed in lake water when exposed to sunlight (half-life less than 1 h in August at 47 degrees latitude). Methyl triclosan and nondissociated triclosan, however, were relatively stable toward photodegradation. Modeling these experimental data for the situation of lake Greifensee indicated that photodegradation can account for the elimination of triclosan from the lake and suggested a seasonal dependence of the concentrations (lower in summer, higher in winter), consistent with observed concentrations. Although emissions of methyl triclosan from WWTPs were only approximately 2% relative to those of triclosan, its predicted concentration relative to triclosan in the epilimnion of the lake increases to 30% in summer. Passive sampling with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) indicated the presence of methyl triclosan in lakes with inputs from anthropogenic sources but not in a remote mountain lake. Surprisingly, no parent triclosan was observed in the SPMDs from these lakes. Methyl triclosan appears to be preferentially accumulated in SPMDs under the conditions in these lakes, leading to concentrations comparable to those of persistent chlorinated organic pollutants.
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Kolpin, D. W.; Furlong, E. T.; Meyer, M. T.; Thurman, E. M.; Zaugg, S. D.; Barber, L. B.; Buxton, H. T.Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999–2000: A national reconnaissance Environ. Sci. Technol.2002, 36 ( 6) 1202– 11
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref35/cit35&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes011055j> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref35/cit35&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=11944670>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref35/cit35&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD38XhslOitLg%253D>]
Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999-2000: A National Reconnaissance
Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Thurman, E. Michael; Zaugg, Steven D.; Barber, Larry B.; Buxton, Herbert T.
Environmental Science and Technology (2002), 36 (6), 1202-1211 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
To provide the 1st nationwide reconnaissance of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other org. wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in water resources, the US. Geol. Survey used 5 newly developed anal. methods to measure concns. of 95 OWCs in water samples from a network of 139 streams across 30 states during 1999 and 2000. The selection of sampling sites was biased toward streams susceptible to contamination (i.e. downstream of intense urbanization and livestock prodn.). OWCs were prevalent during this study, being found in 80% of the streams sampled. The compds. detected represent a wide range of residential, industrial, and agricultural origins and uses with 82 of the 95 OWCs being found during this study. The most frequently detected compds. were coprostanol (fecal steroid), cholesterol (plant and animal steroid), N,N-diethyltoluamide (insect repellent), caffeine (stimulant), triclosan (antimicrobial disinfectant), tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (fire retardant), and 4-nonylphenol (nonionic detergent metabolite). Measured concns. for this study were generally low and rarely exceeded drinking-water guidelines, drinking-water health advisories, or aquatic-life criteria. Many compds., however, do not have such guidelines established. The detection of multiple OWCs was common for this study, with a median of 7 and as many as 38 OWCs being found in a given water sample. Little is known about the potential interactive effects (such as synergistic or antagonistic toxicity) that may occur from complex mixts. of OWCs in the environment. Results demonstrate the importance of obtaining data on metabolites to fully understand not only the fate and transport of OWCs in the hydrol. system but also their ultimate overall effect on human health and the environment.
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von der Ohe, P. C.; Schmitt-Jansen, M.; Slobodnik, J.; Brack, W.Triclosan-the forgotten priority substance? Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.2012, 19 ( 2) 585– 591
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref36/cit36&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1007%2Fs11356-011-0580-7>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref36/cit36&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21833630>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref36/cit36&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BC387ltFWjuw%253D%253D>]
Triclosan--the forgotten priority substance?
von der Ohe Peter Carsten; Schmitt-Jansen Mechthild; Slobodnik Jaroslav; Brack Werner
Environmental science and pollution research international (2012), 19 (2), 585-91 ISSN:.
INTRODUCTION: Triclosan (TCS) is a multi-purpose biocide. Its wide use in personal care products (PCPs) fosters its dispersal in the aquatic environment. Despite enhanced awareness of both scientists and the public in the last decade with regard to fate and effects, TCS received little attention regarding its prioritisation as a candidate river basin-specific pollutant or even priority substance, due to scarce monitoring data. METHODS: Applying a new prioritisation methodology, the potential risk of TCS was assessed based on a refined hazard assessment and occurrences at 802 monitoring sites in the Elbe River basin. RESULTS: The suggested acute-based predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 4.7 ng/l for the standard test species Selenastrum capricornutum was in good agreement with effect concentrations in algal communities and was exceeded in the Elbe River basin at 75% of the sites (limit of quantification of 5 ng/l). The 95th percentile of the maximum environmental concentrations at each site exceeded the PNEC by a factor of 12, indicating potential hazards for algal communities. Among 500 potential river basin-specific pollutants which were recently prioritised, triclosan ranks on position 6 of the most problematic substances, based on the Elbe River data alone. CONCLUSION: Considering the worldwide application of PCPs containing triclosan, we expect that the TCS problem is not restricted to the Elbe River basin, even if monitoring data from other river basins are scarce. Thus, we suggest to include TCS into routine monitoring programmes and to consider it as an important candidate for prioritisation at the European scale.
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Walsh, S. E.; Maillard, J. Y.; Russell, A. D.; Catrenich, C. E.; Charbonneau, D. L.; Bartolo, R. G.Development of bacterial resistance to several biocides and effects on antibiotic susceptibility J. Hosp. Infect.2003, 55 ( 2) 98– 107
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref37/cit37&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2FS0195-6701%2803%2900240-8>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref37/cit37&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=14529633>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref37/cit37&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD3svmvVeluw%253D%253D>]
Development of bacterial resistance to several biocides and effects on antibiotic susceptibility
Walsh S E; Maillard J-Y; Russell A D; Catrenich C E; Charbonneau D L; Bartolo R G
The Journal of hospital infection (2003), 55 (2), 98-107 ISSN:0195-6701.
The aims of this study were to investigate the development of bacterial resistance to eugenol, thymol, trichlorocarbanalide (TCC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDDMAC) and C10-16-alkyldimethyl, N-oxides (ADMAO) and subsequent effects on antibiotic susceptibility. An agar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method was used to assess the activity of the biocides against standard bacterial strains and laboratory mutants. A range of techniques including disk diffusion and gradient plate experiments were used to attempt to develop bacterial 'resistance' or tolerance to the biocides. The mutants produced were examined for cross-resistance to the other biocides and to antibiotics via disk diffusion and gradient plate MIC methods. Outer membrane proteins of the mutants were extracted and examined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Escherichia coli triclosan-resistant mutants were not cross-resistant to eugenol, thymol, TCC, DDDMAC and ADMAO. Mutants with elevated MICs to DDDMAC (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), thymol (E. coli) and eugenol (E. coli) were isolated, but all remained sensitive to higher concentrations of the agents. Bacteria with elevated MICs to TCC and ADMAO were not obtained. Some low-level cross-resistance between DDDMAC, eugenol and thymol was observed with the E. coli gradient plate mutants, as well as reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, most notably chloramphenicol. The lack of cross-resistance of the triclosan mutants suggested that the mode of action of triclosan is not shared with the other biocides studied. SDS-PAGE results indicated that the DDDMAC P. aeruginosa mutant had a reduced amount (or absence) of one outer membrane protein in comparison with the standard strain. In conclusion, under laboratory conditions, bacterial exposure to thymol, eugenol and DDDMAC can lead to reduced susceptibility between selected biocidal agents and antibiotics, more specifically, chloramphenicol. However, further studies are required to determine if this is of clinical significance.
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Gruenke, L. D.; Craig, J. C.; Wester, R. C.; Maibach, H. I.; North-Root, H.; Corbin, N. C.A selected ion monitoring GC/MS assay for 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide and its metabolites in biological fluids J. Anal. Toxicol.1987, 11 ( 2) 75– 80
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref38/cit38&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1093%2Fjat%2F11.2.75>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref38/cit38&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=3573729>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref38/cit38&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaL2sXhvVygtLg%253D>]
A selected ion monitoring GC/MS assay for 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide and its metabolites in biological fluids
Gruenke, Larry D.; Craig, John C.; Wester, Ronald C.; Maibach, Howard I.; North-Root, Helen; Corbin, Neal C.
Journal of Analytical Toxicology (1987), 11 (2), 75-80 CODEN: JATOD3; ISSN:0146-4760.
A selected ion monitoring gas chromatog./mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method for the quant. detn. of 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide (I) [101-20-2] and its major metabolites (the 2'-hydroxysulfate [62950-30-5] and the N- [67200-80-0] and N'-glucuronide [67200-81-1]) in human plasma and urine was developed using the deuterium-labeled compds. as internal stds. Limits of detection of 3 ng/mL in urine for the N-glucuronides and of 1.5 ng/mL in plasma for the 2'-hydroxy sulfate were attained. Use of the method was illustrated in a study in human subjects employing I-contg. bar soaps.
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Halden, R. U.; Paull, D. H.Analysis of triclocarban in aquatic samples by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry Environ. Sci. Technol.2004, 38 ( 18) 4849– 4855
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref39/cit39&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes049524f> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref39/cit39&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15487795>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref39/cit39&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2cXmslShs7s%253D>]
Analysis of Triclocarban in Aquatic Samples by Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Halden, Rolf U.; Paull, Daniel H.
Environmental Science and Technology (2004), 38 (18), 4849-4855 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Triclocarban, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea, is a polychlorinated Ph urea pesticide, marketed under the trademark TCC and used primarily as an antibacterial additive in personal care products. Despite its extensive use over several decades, environmental occurrence data on TCC are scarce. This is due in part to a lack of anal. techniques offering the desired sensitivity, selectivity, affordability, and ease of use. This need is addressed here by introducing a liq. chromatog. electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method allowing for the detn. of TCC concns. in aquatic environments at the ng/L level. TCC was concd. from aq. samples by solid-phase extn., sepd. from interferences on a C18 column by either isocratic or gradient elution, and detected and identified in neg. ESI mode by selectively monitoring the (M - H)- base peak (m/z 313) and its 37Cl-contg. isotopes (m/z 315, 317) that served as ref. ions. Particulates contained in aquatic samples were extd. and analyzed sep. Accurate quantification was achieved using stable isotopes of TCC and triclosan as internal stds. Addn. of 10 mM HOAc to the mobile phase yielded HOAc adducts ([M - H + 60]-) that were successfully exploited to boost method sensitivity and selectivity, esp. when analyzing challenging environmental matrixes. Method detection limits were matrix dependent, ranging from 3 to 50 ng/L. In 36 grab samples obtained from the Greater Baltimore area, TCC was detected in river water and wastewater at concns. of up to 5600 and 6750 ng/L, resp. Raw and finished drinking H2O did not contain detectable quantities of the pesticide (<3 ng/L). In conclusion, the new LC/ESI/MS method was applied successfully to collect environmental occurrence data on TCC in U.S. H2O resources. Study results suggest that the bacteriostat and pesticide is a frequent but currently underreported contaminant whose environmental fate and behavior deserve further scrutiny.
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Heidler, J.; Halden, R. U.Fate of organohalogens in US wastewater treatment plants and estimated chemical releases to soils nationwide from biosolids recycling J. Environ. Monit.2009, 11 ( 12) 2207– 2215
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref40/cit40&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1039%2Fb914324f>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref40/cit40&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20024018>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref40/cit40&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXhsFSnu7bP>]
Fate of organohalogens in US wastewater treatment plants and estimated chemical releases to soils nationwide from biosolids recycling
Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring (2009), 11 (12), 2207-2215 CODEN: JEMOFW; ISSN:1464-0325. (Royal Society of Chemistry)
This study examd. the occurrence in wastewater of 11 arom. biocides, pesticides and degradates, and their fate during passage through US treatment plants, as well as the chem. mass contained in sewage sludge (biosolids) destined for land application. Analyte concns. in wastewater influent, effluent and sludge from 25 facilities in 18 US states were detd. by liq. chromatog. electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry. Dichlorocarbanilide, fipronil, triclocarban, and triclosan were found consistently in all sample types. Dichlorophene, hexachlorophene, and tetrachlorocarbanilide were detected infrequently only, and concns. of the Ph urea pesticides diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and linuron were below the limit of detection in all matrixes. Median concns. (±95% confidence interval) of quantifiable compds. in influent ranged from 4.2 ± 0.8 μg L-1 for triclocarban to 0.03 ± 0.01 μg L-1 for fipronil. Median concns. in effluent were highest for triclocarban and triclosan (0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.07 ± 0.04 μg L-1, resp.). Median aq.-phase removal efficiencies (±95% CI) of activated sludge treatment plants decreased in the order of: triclosan (96 ± 2%) > triclocarban (87 ± 7%) > dichlorocarbanilide (55 ± 20%) > fipronil (18 ± 22%). Median concns. of organohalogens were typically higher in anaerobically than in aerobically digested sludges, and peaked at 27,600 ± 9600 and 15,800 ± 8200 μg kg-1 for triclocarban and triclosan, resp. Mass balances obtained for three primary pesticides in six activated sludge treatment plants employing anaerobic digestion suggested a decreasing overall persistence from fipronil (97 ± 70%) to triclocarban (87 ± 29%) to triclosan (28 ± 30%). Nationwide release of the investigated organohalogens to agricultural land via municipal sludge recycling and into surface waters is estd. to total 258,000 ± 110,00 kg year-1 (mean ± 95% confidence interval), with most of this mass derived from antimicrobial consumer products of daily use. This study addresses some of the data gaps identified by the National Research Council in its 2002 study on stds. and practices of biosolids application on land.
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Schebb, N. H.; Flores, I.; Kurobe, T.; Franze, B.; Ranganathan, A.; Hammock, B. D.; Teh, S. J.Bioconcentration, metabolism and excretion of triclocarban in larval Qurt medaka (Oryzias latipes) Aquat. Toxicol.2011, 105 ( 3–4) 448– 454
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref41/cit41&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.aquatox.2011.07.020>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref41/cit41&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21872556>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref41/cit41&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXhtl2hu7zN>]
Bioconcentration, metabolism and excretion of triclocarban in larval Qurt medaka (Oryzias latipes)
Schebb, Nils Helge; Flores, Ida; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Franze, Bastian; Ranganathan, Anupama; Hammock, Bruce D.; Teh, Swee J.
Aquatic Toxicology (2011), 105 (3-4), 448-454 CODEN: AQTODG; ISSN:0166-445X. (Elsevier B.V.)
The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) is frequently found in personal care products and commonly obsd. in surface waters and sediments. Due to its long environmental persistence TCC accumulates in sewage sludge. It also shows a high unintended biol. activity as a potent inhibitor of the sol. epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and may be an endocrine disruptor. In this study, we investigated bioconcn., metab. and elimination of TCC in fish using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model. Medaka larvae (7 ± 1 days post hatching) were exposed to 63 nM (20 μg/L) TCC water for 24 h. The LC-MS/MS anal. of water and tissues provided bioconcn. of TCC and its metabolites in fish body and rapid excretion into culture water. Results from tissue samples showed a tissue concn. of 34 μmol/kg and a log bioconcn. factor (BCF) of 2.86. These results are slightly lower than previous findings in snails and algae. A significant portion of the absorbed TCC was oxidatively metabolized by the fish to hydroxylated products. These metabolites underwent extensive phase II metab. to yield sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates. The most abundant metabolite in fish tissue was the glucuronide of 2'-OH-TCC. Elimination of TCC after transferring the fish to fresh water was rapid, with a half-life of 1 h. This study shows that larval medaka metabolize TCC similarly to mammals. The rapid rate of metab. results in a lower bioconcn. than calcd. from the octanol-water coeff. of TCC.
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Schebb, N. H.; Inceoglu, B.; Ahn, K. C.; Morisseau, C.; Gee, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects Environ. Sci. Technol.2011, 45 ( 7) 3109– 3115
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref42/cit42&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes103650m> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref42/cit42&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21381656>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref42/cit42&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXivVSgtbo%253D>]
Investigation of Human Exposure to Triclocarban after Showering and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Biological Effects
Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.
Environmental Science & Technology (2011), 45 (7), 3109-3115 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid-phase extn.-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biol. samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concns. 0-72 h after showering with a com. bar soap contg. 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estd. at 0.6% of the 70 ± 15 mg of TCC in the soap used. The TCC-N-glucuronide urine concn. varied widely among the subjects, and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biol. effects arising from this exposure, we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme sol. epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC's major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study, however, failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the anal. strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation.
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Ye, X. Y.; Zhou, X. L.; Furr, J.; Ahn, K. C.; Hammock, B. D.; Gray, E. L.; Calafat, A. M.Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum Toxicology2011, 286 ( 1–3) 69– 74
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref43/cit43&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.tox.2011.05.008>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref43/cit43&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21635932>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref43/cit43&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXnslOlt7Y%253D>]
Biomarkers of exposure to in urine and serum
Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Furr, Johnathan; Ahn, Ki Chang; Hammock, Bruce D.; Gray, Earl L.; Calafat, Antonia M.
Toxicology (2011), 286 (1-3), 69-74 CODEN: TXCYAC; ISSN:0300-483X. (Elsevier Ltd.)
3,4,4'-Trichlorocarbanilide (triclocarban, TCC) is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in a variety of consumer and personal care products. TCC is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, but its potential toxic effects in humans are still largely unknown. Because of its widespread uses, the potential for human exposure to TCC is high. In order to identify adequate exposure biomarkers of TCC, we investigated the metabolic profile of TCC in adult female Sprague Dawley rats after administering TCC once (500 mg/kg body wt.) by oral gavage. Urine was collected 0-24 h before dosing, and 0-24 h and 24-48 h after dosing. Serum was collected at necropsy 48 h after dosing. We identified several metabolites of TCC in urine and serum by online solid phase extn.-high performance liq. chromatog.-mass spectrometry. We unambiguously identified two major oxidative metabolites of TCC, 3'-hydroxy-TCC and 2'-hydroxy-TCC, by comparing their chromatog. behavior and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those of authentic stds. By contrast, compared to these oxidative metabolites, we detected very low levels of TCC in the urine or serum. Taken together these data suggest that in rats, oxidn. of TCC is a major metabolic pathway. We also measured TCC and its oxidative metabolites in 50 urine and 16 serum samples collected from adults in the United States. The results suggest differences in the metabolic profile of TCC in rats and in humans; oxidn. appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in humans. Total (free plus conjugated) TCC could serve as a potential biomarker for human exposure to TCC.
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Coogan, M. A.; Edziyie, R. E.; La Point, T. W.; Venables, B. J.Algal bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater, treatment plant receiving stream Chemosphere2007, 67 ( 10) 1911– 1918
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref44/cit44&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2006.12.027>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref44/cit44&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=17275881>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref44/cit44&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2sXjt1Siu78%253D>]
Algal bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant receiving stream
Coogan, Melinda A.; Edziyie, Regina E.; La Point, Thomas W.; Venables, Barney J.
Chemosphere (2007), 67 (10), 1911-1918 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Algae comprise the greatest abundance of plant biomass in aquatic environments and are a logical choice for aquatic toxicol. studies, yet have been underutilized in this capacity. The lipid content of many algal species provides a point of entry for trophic transfer of lipophilic org. contaminants. Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), widely used antimicrobial agents found in numerous consumer products, are incompletely removed by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processing. Methyl-triclosan (M-TCS) is a metabolite of TCS more lipophilic than the parent compd. The focus was to quantify algal bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for TCS, M-TCS, and TCC in Pecan Creek, the receiving stream for the City of Denton, Texas WWTP. The complex algal compartment was field identified for collection and verified by lab. microscopic description as being comprised of mostly filamentous algae (Cladophora spp.) and varying inconsequential levels of epiphytic diatoms and biofilm. Algae and water column samples were collected from the WWTP outfall, an upstream site, and 2 downstream sites and analyzed by isotope diln. gas chromatog./mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for TCS and M-TCS and liq. chromatog./mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for TCC. TCS, M-TCS, and TCC in Pecan Creek water samples taken at and downstream from the WWTP were at low ppt concns. of 50-200 ng/L and were elevated to low ppb concns. of 50-400 ng/g fresh wt. in algae collected from these stations. The resulting BAFs were 3 orders of magnitude. TCS, M-TCS and TCC appear to be good candidate marker compds. for evaluation of environmental distribution of trace WWTP contaminants. Residue anal. of filamentous algal species typically occurring in receiving streams below WWTP discharges is a readily obtained indicator of the relative bioaccumulative potential of these trace contaminants.
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Coogan, M. A.; La Point, T. W.Snail bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyltriclosan in a North Texas, USA, stream affected by wastewater treatment plant runoff Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2008, 27 ( 8) 1788– 1793
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref45/cit45&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1897%2F07-374.1>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref45/cit45&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18380516>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref45/cit45&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXovFWjtbg%253D>]
Snail bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyltriclosan in a North Texas, USA, stream affected by wastewater treatment plant runoff
Coogan, Melinda A.; La Point, Thomas W.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2008), 27 (8), 1788-1793 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (SETAC Press)
Grazing by freshwater snails promotes nutrient turnover in algal communities. Grazed algal compartments may include antimicrobial agents and metabolites, such as triclocarbon (TCC), triclosan (TCS), and methyltriclosan (MTCS), which are incompletely removed by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processing. The present study quantifies snail bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for TCC, TCS, and MTCS at the outfall of Pecan Creek (TX, USA), the receiving stream for the city of Denton (TX, USA) WWTP. Helisoma trivolvis (Say) is ubiquitous and thrives under std. lab. conditions, leading to its choice for this bioaccumulation study in conjunction with Cladophora spp. Along with providing substrate for epiphytic growth, Cladophora spp. provide a source of food and shelter for H. trivolvis. After being caged for 2 wk, algae and snails were collected from the WWTP outfall, along with water-column samples, and analyzed by isotope diln. gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry for TCS and MTCS and by liq. chromatog.-mass spectrometry for TCC. Algal and snail samples were analyzed before exposure and found to be below practical quantitation limits for all antimicrobial agents. Triclocarban, TCS, and MTCS in water samples were at low-ppt concns. (40-200 ng/L). Triclocarban, TCS, and MTCS were elevated to low-ppb concns. (50-300 ng/g fresh wt.) in caged snail samples and elevated to low-ppb concns. (50-400 ng/g fresh wt) in caged algal samples. Resulting snail and algal BAFs were 3 orders of magnitude, which supports rapid bioaccumulation among algae and adult caged snails at this receiving stream outfall. The results further support TCC, TCS, and MTCS as good candidate marker compds. for evaluation of environmental distribution of trace WWTP contaminants.
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Minnesota Department of Health. Triclosan and Drinking Water.2013. http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/risk/guidance/dwec/triclosaninfo.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Calafat, A. M.; Ye, X.; Wong, L. Y.; Reidy, J. A.; Needham, L. L.Urinary concentrations of Triclosan in the US population: 2003–2004 Environ. Health Perspect.2008, 116 ( 3) 303– 307
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref47/cit47&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1289%2Fehp.10768>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref47/cit47&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18335095>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref47/cit47&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXktFaqt7o%253D>]
Urinary concentrations of triclosan in the U.S. population: 2003-2004
Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.
Environmental Health Perspectives (2008), 116 (3), 303-307 CODEN: EVHPAZ; ISSN:0091-6765. (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services)
Triclosan is a synthetic chem. with broad antimicrobial activity that has been used extensively in consumer products, including personal care products, textiles, and plastic kitchenware. This study was designed to assess exposure to triclosan in a representative sample ≥ 6 years of age of the U.S. general population from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examn. Survey (NHANES). We analyzed 2517 urine samples using automated solid-phase extn. coupled to isotope diln.-high-performance liq. chromatog.-tandem mass spectrometry. We detected concns. of total (free plus conjugated) triclosan in 74.6% of samples at concns. of 2.4-3790 μg/L. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concns. were 13.0 μg/L (12.7 μg/g creatinine) and 459.0 μg/L (363.8 μg/g creatinine), resp. We obsd. a curvilinear relation between age and adjusted least square geometric mean (LSGM) concns. of triclosan. LSGM concns. of triclosan were higher in people in the high household income than in people in low (p < 0.01) and medium (p = 0.04) income categories. In about three-quarters of urine samples analyzed as part of NHANES 2003-2004, we detected concns. of triclosan. Concns. differed by age and socioeconomic status but not by race/ethnicity and sex. Specifically, the concns. of triclosan appeared to be highest during the third decade of life and among people with the highest household incomes.
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Dayan, A. D.Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan (R)] in human breast milk Food Chem. Toxicol.2007, 45 ( 1) 125– 129
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref48/cit48&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.fct.2006.08.009>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref48/cit48&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=17011099>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref48/cit48&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD28Xht1ChsrbI>]
Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan] in human breast milk
Dayan, A. D.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (2007), 45 (1), 125-129 CODEN: FCTOD7; ISSN:0278-6915. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Triclosan is an established bacteriostatic compd. widely used in topical and dental prepns. Its pharmacokinetics and toxicol. have been extensively studied in humans and animals. It is known to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and across the skin. A recent report noted its occurrence in human breast milk and this has now been further investigated. Sixty-two unselected samples of human milk from Breast Milk Banks in California and Texas have been analyzed for triclosan; the concn. ranged from 0 to 2100 μg/kg lipid. A risk assessment of triclosan in human milk has been made, based on a conservative calcn. of exposure of neonates and exptl. toxicity test results. The broad set of reprodn. toxicity tests of triclosan includes a 2-generation study in the rat, in which there was considerable exposure of dams and pups to triclosan throughout fetal development and up to sexual maturity in the F 2 generation, and a further study in which pups of dosed dams were followed to weaning. They established an oral NOAEL for pups of 50 mg/kg/d. The max. exposure of babies via breast milk calcd. using very conservative additive assumptions is 7.4 μg/kg/d. The Margin of Exposure' between the NOAEL and that calcd. in breast fed babies is 6760-fold. Thus, there is no evidence to indicate that the presence of a miniscule amt. of triclosan in breast milk presents a risk to babies.
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Walters, E.; McClellan, K.; Halden, R. U.Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolids-soil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms Water Res.2010, 44 ( 20) 6011– 20
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref49/cit49&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.watres.2010.07.051>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref49/cit49&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20728197>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref49/cit49&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXhsVCmtr3J>]
Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolids-soil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms
Walters, Evelyn; McClellan, Kristin; Halden, Rolf U.
Water Research (2010), 44 (20), 6011-6020 CODEN: WATRAG; ISSN:0043-1354. (Elsevier B.V.)
Municipal biosolids are in widespread use as additives to agricultural soils in the United States. Although it is well known that digested sewage sludge is laden with org. wastewater contaminants, the fate and behavior of micropollutants in biosolids-amended agricultural soils remain unclear. An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) over the course of three years in that were placed in plastic containers made from polyvinylchloride and kept exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Of the 72 PPCPs tested for using EPA Method 1694, 15 were initially detected in the soil/biosolids mixts. at concns. ranging from low parts-per-billion to parts-per-million levels. The antimicrobials triclocarban and triclosan showed the highest initial concns. at 2715 and 1265 μg kg-1, resp. Compds. showing no discernable loss over three years of monitoring included diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, thiabendazole and triclocarban. The following half-life ests. were obtained for compds. showing first-order loss rates: azithromycin (408-990 d) carbamazepine (462-533 d), ciprofloxacin (1155-3466 d), doxycycline (533-578 d), 4-epitetracycline (630 d), gemfibrozil (224-231 d), norfloxacin (990-1386 d), tetracycline (578 d), and triclosan (182-193 d). Consistent with other outdoor degrdn. studies, chem. half-lives detd. empirically exceeded those reported from lab. studies or predicted from fate models. Study results suggest that PPCPs shown in the lab. to be readily biotransformable can persist in soils for extended periods of time when applied in biosolids. This study provides the first exptl. data on the persistence in biosolids-amended soils for ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine, doxycycline, 4-epitetracycline, gemfibrozil, miconazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and thiabendazole.
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McClellan, K.; Halden, R. U.Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey Water Res.2010, 44 ( 2) 658– 68
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref50/cit50&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.watres.2009.12.032>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref50/cit50&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20106500>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref50/cit50&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXhvFegsLs%253D>]
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA national sewage sludge survey
McClellan, Kristin; Halden, Rolf U.
Water Research (2010), 44 (2), 658-668 CODEN: WATRAG; ISSN:0043-1354. (Elsevier B.V.)
In response to the U.S. National Academies' call for a better assessment of chem. pollutants contained in the approx. 7 million dry tons of digested municipal sludge produced annually in the United States, the mean concn. of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) were detd. in 110 biosolids samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Composite samples of archived biosolids, collected at 94 U.S. wastewater treatment plants from 32 states and the District of Columbia, were analyzed by liq. chromatog. tandem mass spectrometry using EPA Method 1694. Thirty-eight (54%) of the 72 analytes were detected in at least one composite sample at concns. ranging from 0.002 to 48 mg kg-1 dry wt. Triclocarban and triclosan were the most abundant analytes with mean concns. of 36 ± 8 and 12.6 ± 3.8 mg kg-1 (n = 5), resp., accounting for 65% of the total PPCP mass found. The loading to U.S. soils from nationwide biosolids recycling was estd. at 210-250 metric tons per yr for the sum of the 72 PPCPs investigated. The results of this nationwide reconnaissance of PPCPs in archived U.S. biosolids mirror in contaminant occurrences, frequencies and concns., those reported by the U.S. EPA for samples collected in 2006/2007. This demonstrates that PPCP releases in U.S. biosolids have been ongoing for many years and the most abundant PPCPs appear to show limited fluctuations in mass over time when assessed on a nationwide basis. The here demonstrated use of five mega composite samples holds promise for conducting cost-effective, routine monitoring on a regional and national basis.
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U.S. EPA Method 1694: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Water, Soil, Sediment, and Biosolids by HPLC/MS/MS 2007. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/bioindicators/upload/2008_01_03_methods_method_1694.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Liao, C.; Liu, F.; Guo, Y.; Moon, H. B.; Nakata, H.; Wu, Q.; Kannan, K.Occurrence of eight bisphenol analogues in indoor dust from the United States and several Asian countries: implications for human exposure Environ. Sci. Technol.2012, 46 ( 16) 9138– 45
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref52/cit52&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes302004w> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref52/cit52&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22784190>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref52/cit52&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhtVSmurzE>]
Occurrence of Eight Bisphenol Analogues in Indoor Dust from the United States and Several Asian Countries: Implications for Human Exposure
Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Guo, Ying; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Environmental Science & Technology (2012), 46 (16), 9138-9145 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Bisphenol A is reported to be a ubiquitous pollutant in indoor dust and human exposure to this compd. is well documented. Information on the occurrence of and human exposure to other bisphenol analogs is limited. This work detd. 8 bisphenol analogs (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane [BPA], 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol [BPAF], 4,4'-(1-phenylethylidene)bisphenol [BPAP], 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane [BPB], 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylmethane [BPF], 4,4'-(1,4-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol [BPP], 4,4'- sulfonyldiphenol [BPS], 4,4'-cyclohexylidenebisphenol [BPZ]) in indoor dust (n = 156) collected in the USA, China, Japan, and Korea. Samples were solid-liq. extd., purified by automated solid phase extn. methods, and detd. by liq. chromatog./tandem mass spectrometry. Total bisphenol concns. (.sum.BP = sum of 8 analogs) in dust were 0.026-111 μg/g (geometric mean, 2.29 μg/g). BPA, BPS, and BPF were the 3 major bisphenols accounting for >98% of total concns. Other bisphenol analogs were rare or not detected, except for BPAF, which was obsd. in 76% of 41 samples collected in Korea (geometric mean, 0.0039 μg/g). Korean indoor dust samples contained the highest concns. of individual and total bisphenols. BPA concns. in dust were compared among 3 micro-environments (house, office, lab.). Estd. ΣBP median daily intake via dust ingestion in USA, China, Japan, and Korea was 12.6, 4.61, 15.8, and 18.6 ng/kg body wt. (bw)/day, resp., for toddlers and 1.72, 0.78, 2.65, and 3.13 ng/kg bw/day, resp., for adults. This is the first report on the occurrence of bisphenols, other than BPA, in indoor dust.
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Geens, T.; Roosens, L.; Neels, H.; Covaci, A.Assessment of human exposure to bisphenol-A, triclosan and tetrabromobisphenol-A through indoor dust intake in Belgium Chemosphere2009, 76 ( 6) 755– 60
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref53/cit53&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2009.05.024>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref53/cit53&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19535125>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref53/cit53&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXos12ksr8%253D>]
Assessment of human exposure to Bisphenol-A, Triclosan and Tetrabromobisphenol-A through indoor dust intake in Belgium
Geens, Tinne; Roosens, Laurence; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian
Chemosphere (2009), 76 (6), 755-760 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Bisphenol-A (BPA), Triclosan (TCS) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) are phenolic org. contaminants used in a variety of household applications. Through manuf. and usage, these contaminants can leach into the environment and can be detected in indoor dust. In this study, we detd. the concns. of BPA, TCS and TBBPA in indoor dust samples from 18 houses and 2 offices in Flanders, Belgium. The anal. was performed using solid-liq. extn., clean-up and measurement by liq. chromatog.-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Median concns. of the 18 domestic dust samples were 1460, 220 and 10 ng g-1 dust for BPA, TCS and TBBPA, resp. Concns. in offices were almost 5-10 times higher for BPA and TBBPA, while TCS concns. were comparable at both locations. An assessment of the daily intake of these contaminants through dust was made and the contribution of dust to the total human exposure was calcd. For all 3 contaminants, dust seems to be a minor contributor (<10% of total exposure) to the total daily exposure. Food intake appears to be the major source of human exposure to BPA and TBBPA as dermal uptake through personal care products seems to be the major contributor for TCS.
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Fan, X.; Kubwabo, C.; Rasmussen, P.; Jones-Otazo, H.Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry J. Environ. Monit.2010, 12 ( 10) 1891– 7
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref54/cit54&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1039%2Fc0em00189a>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref54/cit54&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20820626>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref54/cit54&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXht1GqtLrF>]
Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Fan, Xing-Hua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat; Jones-Otazo, Heather
Journal of Environmental Monitoring (2010), 12 (10), 1891-1897 CODEN: JEMOFW; ISSN:1464-0325. (Royal Society of Chemistry)
An integrated anal. method for the simultaneous detn. of five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-), triclosan, and Me triclosan in indoor house dust was developed based on gas chromatog.-mass spectrometric technique (GC/MS). Analytes were extd. from dust samples by sonication. After sample cleanup by solid-phase extn. (SPE), the exts. were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and then analyzed by gas chromatog. coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. For quantitation, isotope-labeled internal stds. were used for each corresponding target analyte. Only 0.05 g of dust sample was needed for the anal. Method detection limits ranged from 6.5 to 10 ng/g, and abs. recoveries from 74% to 92%. The developed method demonstrated good repeatability and reproducibility, with relative std. deviations (RSDs) less than 16% for all the analytes. The analytes were detd. in dust samples collected using two vacuum sampling methods from 63 Canadian homes: A sample of fresh or "active" dust (FD) collected using a Pullman-Holt vacuum sampler, and a composite sample taken from the household vacuum cleaner (HD). Me paraben, Pr paraben, and triclosan were detected in all HD and FD samples. HD samples yielded median values for Me paraben, Pr paraben, and triclosan of 1080, 463, and 378 ng/g, resp., which were comparable to the FD sample medians of 1120, 618 and 571 ng/g. Et paraben was detected at frequencies of 89% in FD and 73% in HD samples, with median values of 52 and 25 ng/g, resp. Bu paraben was detected at frequencies of 44% in FD and 75% in HD samples, with median values of <10 and 59 ng/g, resp. Benzyl paraben and Me triclosan were not detected in any of the samples collected by either method. Samples collected according to the fresh dust protocol agreed with the household vacuum samples 90% of the time. Widely scattered concn. levels were obsd. for target analytes from this preliminary set of 63 Canadian samples, which suggests a wide variability in Canadian household exposures to these chems.
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Xie, Z. Y.; Ebinghaus, R.; Floser, G.; Caba, A.; Ruck, W.Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea) Environ. Pollut.2008, 156 ( 3) 1190– 1195
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref55/cit55&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.envpol.2008.04.008>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref55/cit55&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18490092>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref55/cit55&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXhsVSgtLjJ>]
Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea)
Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Floeser, Goetz; Caba, Armando; Ruck, Wolfgang
Environmental Pollution (Oxford, United Kingdom) (2008), 156 (3), 1190-1195 CODEN: ENPOEK; ISSN:0269-7491. (Elsevier Ltd.)
The potential of triclosan (TCS) acting as an endocrine disruptor has led to growing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment. Seawater samples were collected from the German Bight during sampling campaigns conducted with the German research ships Gauss and Ludwig Prandtl. TCS was detd. both in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate matters with concns. 0.8-6870 and <1-95 pg/L, resp. High concns. of TCS were present in the estuaries of the Elbe and the Weser, indicating significant input of TCS by the river discharge. The correlation coeff. between the dissolved concn. and salinity was 0.79 for the data from the Gauss cruise, showing an obvious declining trend from the coast to the open sea.
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Pycke, B. F. G.; Halden, R. U. Personal Communication of Unpublished Data. 2014.
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Anastas, P. T.; Kirchhoff, M. M.Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry Acc. Chem. Res.2002, 35 ( 9) 686– 94
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref57/cit57&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Far010065m> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref57/cit57&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12234198>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref57/cit57&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD38XksFOrtLs%253D>]
Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry
Anastas, Paul T.; Kirchhoff, Mary M.
Accounts of Chemical Research (2002), 35 (9), 686-694 CODEN: ACHRE4; ISSN:0001-4842. (American Chemical Society)
Over the course of the past decade, green chem. has demonstrated how fundamental scientific methodologies can protect human health and the environment in an economically beneficial manner. Significant progress is being made in several key research areas, such as catalysis, the design of safer chems. and environmentally benign solvents, and the development of renewable feedstocks. Current and future chemists are being trained to design products and processes with an increased awareness for environmental impact. Outreach activities within the green chem. community highlight the potential for chem. to solve many of the global environmental challenges we now face. The origins and basis of green chem. chart a course for achieving environmental and economic prosperity inherent in a sustainable world.
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Anastas, P. T.; Zimmerman, J. B.Design through the 12 principles of green engineering Environ. Sci. Technol.2003, 37 ( 5) 94A– 101A
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref58/cit58&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes032373g> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref58/cit58&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12666905>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref58/cit58&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD3s7ltVGlsg%253D%253D>]
Design through the 12 principles of green engineering
Anastas Paul T; Zimmerman Julie B
Environmental science & technology (2003), 37 (5), 94A-101A ISSN:0013-936X.
There is no expanded citation for this reference.
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Persistent, Bioaccumulativeand Toxic (PBT) Chemical Program. http://www.epa.gov/pbt/ (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Consensus Panel. Scientific and Policy Analysis of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Chemicals: A Comparison of Practices in Asia, Europe, and North America; Indiana University: 2013. http://www.indiana.edu/spea/faculty/pdf/scientific_policy_analysis_of_persistent_bioaccumulative_and_toxic_chemicals_PBT_.pdf<http://www.indiana.edu/∼spea/faculty/pdf/scientific_policy_analysis_of_persistent_bioaccumulative_and_toxic_chemicals_PBT_.pdf> (accessed February 28, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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European Environment Agency. Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation EEA Report No 1/2013; 2013. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/late-lessons-2 (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Gledhill, W. E.Biodegradation of 3,4,4¢-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC, in sewage and activated sludge Water Res.1975, 9 ( 7) 649– 654
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref62/cit62&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2F0043-1354%2875%2990171-2>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref62/cit62&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaE2MXlt1Sgtb8%253D>]
Biodegradation of 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC, in sewage and activated sludge
Gledhill, W. E.
Water Research (1975), 9 (7), 649-54 CODEN: WATRAG; ISSN:0043-1354.
The extent of biodegrdn. of 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide TCC, in sewage systems was examd. TCC samples uniformly labeled in either the p-chloroaniline ring (14C-PCA-TCC) or the dichloroaniline ring (14C-DCA-TCC) were monitored in activated sludge systems by measurements of 14CO2 evolution. The p-chloroaniline (PCA) ring of TCC was more rapipdly degraded than the dichloroaniline (DCA) ring. In a continuous flow activated sludge system (10 hr retention time, 200 μg TCC l.) acclimation to primary biodegrdn. was readily gained. 14CO2 evolution from 14C-PCA-TCC was consistent with complete metabolism of the PCA ring while that from 14C-DCA-TCC indicated 50% biodegrdn. of the DCA ring. Anal. of effluents from continuous flow activated sludge units established that TCC undergoes primary biodegrdn. to its chloroaniline components which are in turn biodegraded.
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McMurry, L. M.; Oethinger, M.; Levy, S. B.Triclosan targets lipid synthesis Nature1998, 394 ( 6693) 531– 532
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref63/cit63&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1038%2F28970>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref63/cit63&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=9707111>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref63/cit63&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaK1cXltlyisbo%253D>]
Triclosan targets lipid synthesis
McMurry, Laura M.; Oethinger, Margret; Levy, Stuart B.
Nature (London) (1998), 394 (6693), 531-532 CODEN: NATUAS; ISSN:0028-0836. (Macmillan Magazines)
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial. Here it is shown that triclosan blocks lipid synthesis in Escherichia coli and that mutations in, or overexpression of, gene fabI (which encodes enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, involved in fatty acid synthesis) prevents this blockage.
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Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, J.; Wu, Y.; Liang, X.Distribution patterns of PCDD/Fs in chlorinated chemicals Chemosphere2005, 60 ( 6) 779– 84
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref64/cit64&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2005.04.017>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref64/cit64&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15939456>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref64/cit64&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2MXlvVWnsbg%253D>]
Distribution patterns of PCDD/Fs in chlorinated chemicals
Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Yongning; Liang, Xinmiao
Chemosphere (2005), 60 (6), 779-784 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier B.V.)
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were detd. in 5 chlorinated chems. (phthalocyanine copper, phthalocyanine green, chloranil-1 and 2, and triclosan) and their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-[p]-dioxin equiv. (TEQ) were compared. The distribution patterns of total PCDD/Fs and 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs were elucidated in detail. The TEQ values of toxic PCDD/Fs in all chems. were in the range of 5.03-1379.55 ng I-TEQ/kg. The contribution of OCDD and OCDF in phthalocyanine green was 75% of the total TEQ. For chloranils, the max. contribution of toxic PCDD/Fs was from 2,3,7,8-substituted HxCDF and 2,3,7,8-substituted HpCDF. The TEQ of HxCDF and HpCDF in chloranil-1 was 90% and in chloranil-2 was 71%. The toxic contribution increased with the degree of chlorination for PCDFs.
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Menoutis, J.; Parisi, A. I.Testing for dioxin and furan contamination in triclosan Cosmet. Toiletries Magazine2002, 117 ( 10) 75– 78
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Rule, K. L.; Ebbett, V. R.; Vikesland, P. J.Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan Environ. Sci. Technol.2005, 39 ( 9) 3176– 3185
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref66/cit66&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes048943%2B> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref66/cit66&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15926568>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref66/cit66&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2MXivVeqsr0%253D>]
Formation of Chloroform and Chlorinated Organics by Free-Chlorine-Mediated Oxidation of Triclosan
Rule, Krista L.; Ebbett, Virginia R.; Vikesland, Peter J.
Environmental Science and Technology (2005), 39 (9), 3176-3185 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
The widely used antimicrobial agent triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) readily reacts with free chlorine under drinking water treatment conditions. Overall second-order kinetics were obsd., first-order in free chlorine and first-order in triclosan. Over the pH range of 4-11.5, the kinetics were pH sensitive as a result of the pH dependent speciation of both triclosan and free chlorine. Using a Marquardt-Levenberg routine, it was detd. that this pH effect indicates that the dominant reaction in this system is between the ionized phenolate form of triclosan and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The overall second-order rate coeff. was detd. to be kArO- = 5.40 (±1.82) × 103 M-1 s-1. Three chlorophenoxyphenols and two chlorophenols were identified by gas chromatog.-mass spectroscopic anal. The chlorophenoxyphenol compds. include two monochlorinated triclosan derivs. (5,6-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol and 4,5-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) and one dichlorinated deriv. (4,5,6-trichloro-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol); these species form via bimol. electrophilic substitution of triclosan. 2,4-Dichlorophenol was detected under all reaction conditions and forms via ether cleavage of triclosan. In expts. with excess free chlorine, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was formed via electrophilic substitution of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Chloroform formation was obsd. when an excess of free chlorine was present. A Hammett-type linear free-energy relationship (LFER) using Brown-Okamoto parameters (σ+) was established to correlate the reactivity of HOCl and the phenolate forms of triclosan and other chlorophenols (log kArO- = -(10.7 ± 2.2)Σσ+o,m,p + 4.43). This LFER was used to obtain ests. of rate coeffs. describing the reactivity of the intermediates 5,6-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (kArO- ≈ 6 × 102), 4,5-dichloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (kArO- ≈ 3 × 102), and 4,5,6-trichloro-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (kArO- ≈ 4 × 101).
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Latch, D. E.; Packer, J. L.; Arnold, W. A.; McNeill, K.Photochemical conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution J. Photochem. Photobiol. A2003, 158 ( 1) 63– 66
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref67/cit67&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2FS1010-6030%2803%2900103-5>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref67/cit67&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3sXjtVenu7w%253D>]
Photochemical conversion of Triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution
Latch, Douglas E.; Packer, Jennifer L.; Arnold, William A.; McNeill, Kristopher
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A: Chemistry (2003), 158 (1), 63-66 CODEN: JPPCEJ; ISSN:1010-6030. (Elsevier Science B.V.)
The direct photolysis of Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), an antimicrobial additive commonly detected in surface waters, is studied. It is found that 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) is produced in both buffered and natural (Mississippi River) water with yields ranging from 1 to 12% under a variety of conditions. This result indicates that Triclosan is likely converted to 2,8-DCDD in sunlight-irradiated surface waters.
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Miller, T. R.; Colquhoun, D. R.; Halden, R. U.Identification of wastewater bacteria involved in the degradation of triclocarban and its non-chlorinated congener J. Hazard. Mater2010, 183 ( 1–3) 766– 772
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref68/cit68&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.jhazmat.2010.07.092>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref68/cit68&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20727675>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref68/cit68&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXhtFChtrfM>]
Identification of wastewater bacteria involved in the degradation of triclocarban and its non-chlorinated congener
Miller, Todd R.; Colquhoun, David R.; Halden, Rolf U.
Journal of Hazardous Materials (2010), 183 (1-3), 766-772 CODEN: JHMAD9; ISSN:0304-3894. (Elsevier B.V.)
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial additive of personal care products that is only partially degraded during wastewater treatment. Bacteria responsible for its transformation are unknown. We obtained wastewater bacteria capable of using as the sole C source TCC or its non-chlorinated analog, carbanilide (NCC). Enrichments established using activated sludge amended with TCC and NCC, resp., were maintained for 1 yr through successive transfers. Enrichments displayed exponential growth after 2 wk, reaching stationary phase after 1 mo. The NCC enrichment was shown to accumulate aniline. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated markedly reduced community richness compared to the inoculum and a single, prominent taxonomic unit emerged in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated carbanilide enrichment cultures. Cloned 16S rRNA genes showed both enrichments were dominated by a single genotype related to uncharacterized organisms within the Alcaligenaceae. Of 30 sequences from each enrichment, no other organisms were detected in the TCC enrichment while, a small, flanking community of α-Proteobacteria was detected in the NCC enrichment. Study results demonstrate that growth of wastewater bacteria on TCC and its lower chlorinated analog can be linked to bacteria within the family Alcaligenaceae. These organisms are promising agents for the bioremediation of hazardous phenylurea pollutants.
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Kwon, J. W.; Xia, K.Fate of triclosan and triclocarban in soil columns with and without biosolids surface application Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2012, 31 ( 2) 262– 269
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref69/cit69&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fetc.1703>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref69/cit69&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22105314>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref69/cit69&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhtlWku7c%253D>]
Fate of triclosan and triclocarban in soil columns with and without biosolids surface application
Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Xia, Kang
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2012), 31 (2), 262-269 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (Wiley-Blackwell)
The leaching and transformation behaviors of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) in soil columns (20 cm high, 4 cm in diam.) packed with an agricultural soil (Roxana very fine sandy loam) with and without biosolids surface application were studied. The column leachates and soil samples were analyzed for TCS, TCC, and their transformation products. Significantly more TCS was transformed compared with TCC. Surface application of biosolids significantly retarded their transformation. Downward movement of TCS and TCC occurred within a 10-cm soil depth. Methyl-TCS was not detectable in the leachates but was detected in the top 5-cm soil layer, with more appearing in the biosolids-applied soil. At the end of the column study, carbanilide (CBA) was the only detectable TCC reductive dechlorination product in the soil. No TCC reductive dechlorination products were detectable in the leachates. Detection of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and 4-chloroaniline (4-CA) suggested the occurrence of TCC hydrolysis. Rapid leaching of 4-CA through the soil column was obsd. The 3,4-DCA was detected throughout the entire 20-cm depth of the soil column but not in the leachates. The fact that only small percentages of the transformed TCS and TCC appeared, after a 101-day column study, in the forms of the products analyzed suggested that either the studied transformation pathways were minor pathways or further rapid transformation of those products had occurred.
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Borchgrevink, C. P.; Cha, J.; Kim, S.Hand washing practices in a college town environment J. Environ. Health2013, 75 ( 8) 18– 24
[PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref70/cit70&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23621052>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref70/cit70&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BC3srptVaitw%253D%253D>]
Hand washing practices in a college town environment
Borchgrevink Carl P; Cha JaeMin; Kim SeungHyun
Journal of environmental health (2013), 75 (8), 18-24 ISSN:0022-0892.
Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease.
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Miller, T. R.; Heidler, J.; Chillrud, S. N.; Delaquil, A.; Ritchie, J. C.; Mihalic, J. N.; Bopp, R.; Halden, R. U.Fate of triclosan and evidence for reductive dechlorination of triclocarban in estuarine sediments Environ. Sci. Technol.2008, 42 ( 12) 4570– 4576
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref71/cit71&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes702882g> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref71/cit71&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18605588>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref71/cit71&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXlvVymsbw%253D>]
Fate of Triclosan and Evidence for Reductive Dechlorination of Triclocarban in Estuarine Sediments
Miller, Todd R.; Heidler, Jochen; Chillrud, Steven N.; DeLaquil, Amelia; Ritchie, Jerry C.; Mihalic, Jana N.; Bopp, Richard; Halden, Rolf U.
Environmental Science & Technology (2008), 42 (12), 4570-4576 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Biocides, triclosan and triclocarban, are wastewater pollutants whose occurrence and fate in estuarine sediment are unexplored. Pollutant profiles in 137Cs/7Be-dated sediment cores collected near wastewater treatment facilities in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CB), Maryland, and Jamaica Bay (JB), New York, are reported. In JB, biocide occurrence tracked the time course of biocide use and wastewater treatment strategies employed; triclocarban first appeared in the 1950s, triclosan in the 1960s , and peaked in the late 1960s and 1970s at 24 ± 0.54 and 0.8 ± 0.4 mg/kg dry wt., resp. In CB, where sediment accumulation time was not as well constrained by 137Cs depth profiles, triclocarban was only measurable in 137Cs-bearing sediment, peaking at 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/kg midway through the core and >1 mg/kg in recent deposits; triclosan concns. were low or not detected in the CB core. CB sediment tandem mass spectrometry anal. produced the first evidence for complete sequential dechlorination of triclocarban to the transformation products, dichloro-, monochloro-, and unsubstituted carbanilide, which were detected at maxima of 15.5 ± 1.8, 4.1 ± 2.4, and 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, resp. Concns. of all carbanilide congeners combined were correlated with heavy metals (R2 >0.64, P <0.01), thereby identifying wastewater as the principal pollution pathway. Environmental persistence over the past 40 years was obsd. for triclosan and triclocarban in JB, and for the triclocarban diphenylurea backbone in CB sediment.
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Higgins, C. P.; Paesani, Z. J.; Chalew, T. E. A.; Halden, R. U.; Hundal, L. S.Persistence of triclocarban and triclosan in soils after land application of biosolids and bioaccumulation in Eisenia Foetida Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2011, 30 ( 3) 556– 563
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref72/cit72&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fetc.416>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref72/cit72&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21128266>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref72/cit72&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXitVyhs78%253D>]
Persistence of triclocarban and triclosan in soils after land application of biosolids and bioaccumulation in Eisenia foetida
Higgins, Christopher P.; Paesani, Zachary J.; Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Halden, Rolf U.; Hundal, Lakhwinder S.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2011), 30 (3), 556-563 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (Wiley-Blackwell)
The presence of the antimicrobial chems. triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) in municipal biosolids has raised concerns about the potential impacts of these chems. on soil ecosystems following land application of municipal biosolids. The relative persistence of TCC and TCS in agricultural fields receiving yearly applications of bosolids at six different loading rates over a three-year period was investigated. Soil and biosolids samples were collected, extd., and analyzed for TCC and TCS using liq. chromatog.-tandem mass spectrometry. In addn., the potential for bioaccumulation of TCC and TCS from the biosolids-amended soils was assessed over 28 d in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Std. 28-d bioaccumulation tests were conducted for three biosolids loading rates from two sites, representing agronomic and twice the agronomic rates of biosolids application plots as well as control plots receiving no applications of biosolids. Addnl. bioaccumulation kinetic data were collected for the soils receiving the high biosolids loadings to ensure attainment of quasi steady-state conditions. The results indicate that TCC is relatively more persistent in biosolids-attended soil than TCS. In addn., TCC bioaccumulated in E. foetida, reaching body burdens of 25 ± 4 and 133 ± 17 ng/gww in worms exposed for 28 d to the two soils amended with biosolids at agronomic rates. The 28-d org. carbon and lipid-normalized biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calcd. for TCC and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.12 to 0.71 ± 0.13. These findings suggest that TCC bioaccumulation is somewhat consistent with the traditional hydrophobic org. contaminant (HOC), partitioning paradigm. However, these data also suggest substantially reduced bioavailability of TCC in biosolids-amended soils compared with HOC partitioning theory.
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Snyder, E. H.; O’Connor, G. A.; McAvoy, D. C.Fate of C-14-triclocarban in biosolids-amended soils Sci. Total Environ.2010, 408 ( 13) 2726– 2732
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref73/cit73&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2010.01.005>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref73/cit73&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20363015>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref73/cit73&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXlsFaqsbY%253D>]
Fate of 14C-triclocarban in biosolids-amended soils
Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A.; McAvoy, Drew C.
Science of the Total Environment (2010), 408 (13), 2726-2732 CODEN: STENDL; ISSN:0048-9697. (Elsevier B.V.)
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antibacterial compd. commonly detected in biosolids at parts-per-million concns. Approx. half of the biosolids produced in the United States are land-applied, resulting in a systematic release of TCC into the soil environment. The extent of biosolids-borne TCC environmental transport and potential human/ecol. exposures will be greatly affected by its bioavailability and the rate of degrdn. in amended soils. To investigate these factors, radiolabeled TCC (14C-TCC) was incorporated into anaerobically digested biosolids, amended to two soils, and incubated under aerobic conditions. The evolution of 14CO2 (biodegrdn.) and changes in chem. extractability (bioavailability) was measured over time. Water extractable TCC over the study period was low and significantly decreased over the first 3 wk of the study (from 14% to 4% in a fine sand soil and from 3 to < 1% in a silty clay loam soil). Mineralization (i.e. ultimate degrdn.), as measured by evolution of 14CO2, was < 4% over 7.5 mo. Methanol exts. of the amended soils were analyzed by radiolabel thin-layer chromatog. (RAD-TLC), but no intermediate degrdn. products were detected. Approx. 20% and 50% of the radioactivity in the amended fine sand and silty clay loam soils, resp., was converted to bound residue as measured by solids combustion. These results indicate that biosolids-borne TCC becomes less bioavailable over time and biodegrades at a very slow rate.
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Heidler, J.; Sapkota, A.; Halden, R. U.Partitioning, persistence, and accumulation in digested sludge of the topical antiseptic triclocarban during wastewater treatment Environ. Sci. Technol.2006, 40 ( 11) 3634– 3639
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref74/cit74&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes052245n> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref74/cit74&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=16786704>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref74/cit74&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD28XjslKhs74%253D>]
Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban during Wastewater Treatment
Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U.
Environmental Science & Technology (2006), 40 (11), 3634-3639 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compd. and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance anal. conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent, and digested sludge was monitored by isotope diln. liq. chromatog. (tandem) mass spectrometry. The av. mass of TCC (mean ± std. deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 ± 2.0 μg/L) and effluent (0.17 ± 0.03 μg/L) was 3737 ± 694 and 127 ± 6 g/d, resp., indicating an aq.-phase removal efficiency of 97 ± 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 ± 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation, resulting in an accumulation of the antiseptic compd. in dewatered, digested municipal sludge to levels of 51 ± 15 mg/kg dry wt. (2815 ± 917 g/d). In addn. to the biocide mass passing through the plant contained in the effluent (3 ± 1%), 76 ± 30% of the TCC input entering the plant underwent no net transformation and instead partitioned into and accumulated in municipal sludge. Based on the rate of beneficial reuse of sludge produced by this facility (95%), which exceeds the national av. (63%), study results suggest that approx. three-quarters of the mass of TCC disposed of by consumers in the sewershed of the plant ultimately is released into the environment by application of municipal sludge (biosolids) on land used in part for agriculture.
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Heidler, J.; Halden, R. U.Mass balance assessment of triclosan removal during conventional sewage treatment Chemosphere2007, 66 ( 2) 362– 369
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref75/cit75&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2006.04.066>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref75/cit75&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=16766013>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref75/cit75&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD28Xht1Cqt7vE>]
Mass balance assessment of triclosan removal during conventional sewage treatment
Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U.
Chemosphere (2006), 66 (2), 362-369 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
The antimicrobial agent triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; TCS) is a member of a larger group of polychlorinated binuclear arom. compds. frequently assocd. with adverse environmental and human health effects. Whereas the structure and function of TCS would suggest significant resistance to biotransformation, biol. wastewater treatment currently is considered the principal destructive mechanism limiting dispersal of and environmental contamination with this compd. We explored the persistence of TCS in a typical full-scale activated sludge US sewage treatment plant using a mass balance approach in conjunction with isotope diln. liq. chromatog. electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ID-LC-ESI-MS) for accurate quantification. Av. influent and effluent concns. (mean ± SD) of 4.7 ± 1.6 and 0.07 ± 0.06 μg l-1, resp., revealed an apparent (liq.-phase) removal efficiency of 98 ± 1%. However, further analyses demonstrated that the particle-active TCS (80 ± 22% particle-assocd. in influent) was sequestered into wastewater residuals and accumulated in dewatered, digested sludge to concns. of 30 000 ± 11 000 μg kg-1. Overall, 50 ± 19% (1640 ± 610 g d-1) of the disinfectant mass entering the plant (3240 ± 1860 g d-1) remained detectable in sludge, and less than half of the total mass (48 ± 19%) was biotransformed or lost to other mechanisms. Thus, conventional sewage treatment was demonstrated to be much less effective in destroying the antimicrobial than the aq.-phase removal efficiency of the plant would make believe. Furthermore, study findings indicate that the common practice of sludge recycling in agriculture results in the transfer of substantial quantities of TCS to US soils used, in part, for animal husbandry and crop prodn.
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McAvoy, D. C.; Schatowitz, B.; Jacob, M.; Hauk, A.; Eckhoff, W. S.Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2002, 21 ( 7) 1323– 1329
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref76/cit76&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1897%2F1551-5028%282002%29021%3C1323%3AMOTIWT%3E2.0.CO%3B2>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref76/cit76&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12109730>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref76/cit76&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD38Xlt1ehsbc%253D>]
Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems
McAvoy, Drew C.; Schatowitz, Bert; Jacob, Martin; Hauk, Armin; Eckhoff, William S.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2002), 21 (7), 1323-1329 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (SETAC Press)
This study examd. the fate and removal of triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent used in household and personal-care products, in wastewater treatment systems. This objective was accomplished by monitoring environmental concns. of TCS, higher chlorinated derivs. of TCS (4,5-dichloro-2-[2,4-dichloro-phenoxyl-phenol]) [tetra II]; 5,6-dichloro-2-[2,4-dichloro-phenoxy]-phenol [tetra III]; 4,5,6-trichloro-2-(2,4-dichloro-phenoxy)-phenol [penta], and a potential biotransformation TCS byproduct, (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dicholoro-phenoxy]-anisole [TCS-OMe]), during wastewater treatment. These analytes were isolated from wastewater using a C18 solid-phase extn. column and from sludge with supercrit. fluid CO2. Once isolated, the analytes were derivatized to form trimethylsilylethers before quantitation by gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry. TCS recovery from lab.-spiked wastewater was 79-88% for influent, 36-87% for final effluent, and 70-109% for primary sludge. Field TCS concns. in influent wastewater were 3.8-16.6 μg/L and final effluent concns. were 0.2-2.7 μg/L. TCS removal by activated sludge treatment was 96%; trickling filter treatment removal was 58-86%. Higher chlorinated tetra-II, tetra-III, and penta closans were below quantitation in all of final effluent samples, except for 1 sampling event. Digested sludge TCS concns. were 0.5-15.6 μg/g (dry wt); the lowest value was from an aerobic digestion process and the highest value was from an anaerobic digestion process. Anal. of these results suggested TCS is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Higher chlorinated closans were near or below quantitation limits in all digested sludge samples. Based on these results, TCS chlorinated analogs and biotransformation byproducts are expected to be very low in receiving water and sludge-amended soil.
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Singer, H.; Muller, S.; Tixier, C.; Pillonel, L.Triclosan: Occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: Field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters, and lake sediments Environ. Sci. Technol.2002, 36 ( 23) 4998– 5004
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref77/cit77&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes025750i> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref77/cit77&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12523412>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref77/cit77&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD38XotlCjs7k%253D>]
Triclosan: Occurrence and Fate of a Widely Used Biocide in the Aquatic Environment: Field Measurements in Wastewater Treatment Plants, Surface Waters, and Lake Sediments
Singer, Heinz; Mueller, Stephan; Tixier, Celine; Pillonel, Laurent
Environmental Science and Technology (2002), 36 (23), 4998-5004 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Triclosan is used as an antimicrobial agent in a wide range of medical and consumer care products. To examine the occurrence and fate of triclosan in the aquatic environment, anal. methods to quantify triclosan in surface water, wastewater, sludge, and sediment were developed. Also, the fate of triclosan in a wastewater treatment plant (biol. degrdn., 79%; sorption to sludge, 15%; input to receiving surface water, 6%) was measured in a field study. Despite the high overall removal rate, triclosan concn. in wastewater effluent was 42-213 ng/L, leading to concns. of 11-98 ng/L in the receiving river. Moreover, a high triclosan removal rate of 0.03/day in the epilimnion of the lake, Greifensee, was obsd. due to photochem. degrdn. The measured vertical triclosan concn. profile in a lake sediment core of Greifensee reflected its increased use over 30 yr. Since measured concns. in surface water were in the range of the predicted no effect concn. of 50 ng/L, more measurements and a detailed study of degrdn. processes are needed.
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Bester, K.Triclosan in a sewage treatment process - balances and monitoring data Water Res.2003, 37 ( 16) 3891– 3896
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref78/cit78&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2FS0043-1354%2803%2900335-X>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref78/cit78&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12909107>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref78/cit78&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3sXlvFejur0%253D>]
Triclosan in a sewage treatment process - balances and monitoring data
Bester, K.
Water Research (2003), 37 (16), 3891-3896 CODEN: WATRAG; ISSN:0043-1354. (Elsevier Science B.V.)
In a German sewage treatment plant that processes 200,000 m3 wastewater/day, the concns. of triclosan in the influent (1000 ng/L) as well as in the effluent water (50 ng/L) are compared to the concns. measured in sludge (1200 ng/g). Considering the mass flow of water and sludge in the resp. plant, balances including water and sludge are calcd. Thirty percent of the triclosan is sorbed with weak bonds to the sludge, while some amts. are sorbed as bound residues in the sludge. About 5% is dissolved in the effluent water. Most of the influent material is not recovered as the parent compd. but likely it is transformed to other metabolites or unrecovered bound residues. These data are compared with the monitoring of sewage sludge of 20 different plants in this region, most of which are smaller. The concns. found in these sludges were 1000-8000 ng/g.
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Bester, K.Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.2005, 49 ( 1) 9– 17
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref79/cit79&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1007%2Fs00244-004-0155-4>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref79/cit79&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15959704>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref79/cit79&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2MXmt1ent7w%253D>]
Fate of Triclosan and Triclosan-Methyl in Sewage Treatment Plants and Surface Waters
Bester, Kai
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2005), 49 (1), 9-17 CODEN: AECTCV; ISSN:0090-4341. (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.)
The fate of triclosan in diverse stages of 2 sewage treatment processes was detd. The elimination process differed considerably depending on the technol. applied in the resp. sewage treatment plant (STP). The plant operating with a 2-stage biol. (activated sludge) process removed triclosan more efficiently than the STP with a combination of phys. and activated sludge process. The treatment in the aeration basin was the dominant elimination mechanism, whereas the final biol. filter was not very effective. The elimination rates for triclosan were 87 and 95%, resp. These data were compared with emissions of a multitude of STPs in the river Ruhr catchment area as well as triclosan and its known transformation product, triclosan-Me, in the river. The concns. of both compds. were between <3 and 10 ng/L in true surface-water samples for triclosan and 0.3-10 ng/L for triclosan-Me. The STP effluents held higher concns. (10-600 ng/L triclosan). The ratio of triclosan to triclosan-Me did not change significantly within the longitudinal profile of the river, but diverse STPs discharging to the river exhibited individual triclosan-to-triclosan-Me ratios. From the riverine concn. data, in-river elimination rates and half-life were estd.
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Waltman, E. L.; Venables, B. J.; Waller, W. Z.Triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant and the influent and effluent of an experimental constructed wetland Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2006, 25 ( 2) 367– 372
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref80/cit80&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1897%2F05-112R.1>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref80/cit80&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=16519296>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref80/cit80&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD28XptlCktg%253D%253D>]
Triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant and the influent and effluent of an experimental constructed wetland
Waltman, Elise Lyn; Venables, Barney J.; Waller, William T.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2006), 25 (2), 367-372 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (SETAC Press)
The antimicrobial triclosan was analyzed in unfiltered samples from influent, effluent, and receiving stream and before and after a pilot-scale constructed wetland at a North Texas municipal wastewater treatment plant. Triclosan concns. were reduced by 97-99% by the activated sludge treatment plant. Effluent concns. were further reduced by passage through the constructed wetland, but receiving stream concns. were not statistically significantly different from effluent concns. Effluent concns. of triclosan were seasonal with highest concns. occurring during the summer months. The effluent-dominated receiving stream max. concns. during summer months were below reported algal no-obsd.-effect concns. based on biomass and growth rate but exceeded concns. reported to cause shifts in algal community structure.
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Fiss, E. M.; Rule, K. L.; Vikesland, P. J.Formation of chloroform and other chlorinated byproducts by chlorination of triclosan-containing antibacterial products Environ. Sci. Technol.2007, 41 ( 7) 2387– 2394
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref81/cit81&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes062227l> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref81/cit81&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=17438791>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref81/cit81&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2sXitF2hur8%253D>]
Formation of Chloroform and Other Chlorinated Byproducts by Chlorination of Triclosan-Containing Antibacterial Products
Fiss, E. Matthew; Rule, Krista L.; Vikesland, Peter J.
Environmental Science & Technology (2007), 41 (7), 2387-2394 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Triclosan is a widely used antibacterial agent found in many personal hygiene products. Although it has previously been established that pure triclosan and free chlorine readily react, interactions between triclosan-contg. consumer products and free chlorine have not previously been analyzed in great depth. Sixteen double-blinded solns. including both triclosan-contg. (1.14-3.12 mg triclosan/g product) and triclosan-free products were contacted with free chlorine at pH 7. Products detected included (chlorophenoxy)phenols, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and chloroform. The daughter product yields were found to be highly variable and were dependent on the antimicrobial product investigated, the free chlorine to triclosan ratio, and the temp. at which the study was conducted. Lowering the temp. from 40° to 30° resulted in a decreased av. chloroform yield from 0.50 to 0.37 mol chloroform/mol triclosan consumed after 1 min of reaction time for an initial free chlorine concn. of 4.0 mg/L as Cl2. At 40° the av. molar chloroform yields decreased to 0.29 and <0.1 when the initial free chlorine concn. was decreased to either 2.0 or 1.0 mg/L as Cl2, resp. Field expts., in which Atlanta, Georgia, and Danville, Virginia, tap waters were augmented with various soap products, exhibited results varying from the lab. expts. in that different product yields were obsd. These differences are attributed to the chlorine demand of constituents in the tap water. A simple exposure model suggests that exposure to chloroform can be significant under some conditions.
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Bedoux, G.; Roig, B.; Thomas, O.; Dupont, V.; Le Bot, B.Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.2012, 19 ( 4) 1044– 1065
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref82/cit82&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1007%2Fs11356-011-0632-z>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref82/cit82&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22057832>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref82/cit82&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38Xmt1yrur0%253D>]
Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment
Bedoux, Gilles; Roig, Benoit; Thomas, Olivier; Dupont, Virginie; Le Bot, Barbara
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2012), 19 (4), 1044-1065 CODEN: ESPLEC; ISSN:0944-1344. (Springer)
Introduction and aims A review was undertaken on the occurrence, toxicity, and degrdn. of triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in the environment. TCS is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent incorporated in a wide variety of household and personal care products such as hand soap, toothpaste, and deodorants but also in textile fibers used in a range of other consumer products (e.g., toys, undergarments and cutting boards among other things). Occurrence Because of its partial elimination in sewage treatment plants, most reports describe TCS as one of the most commonly encountered substances in solid and water environmental compartments. It has been detected in a microgram per L or microgram per kg level in sewage treatment plants (influents, effluents, and sludges), natural waters (rivers, lakes, and estuarine waters), and sediments as well as in drinking water. Toxicity Moreover, due to its high hydrophobicity, TCS can accumulate in fatty tissues and has been found in fish and human samples (urine, breast milk, and serum). TCS is known to be biodegradable, photo-unstable, and reactive towards chlorine and ozone. Discussion As a consequence, it can be transformed into potentially more toxic and persistent compds., such as chlorinated phenols and biphenyl ethers after chlorination, Me triclosan after biol. methylation, and chlorinated dibenzodioxins after photooxidn. The toxicity of TCS toward aquatic organisms like fish, crustaceans, and algae has been demonstrated with EC50 values near TCS environmental concns. It has even been shown to produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects. Conclusion Furthermore, the excessive use of TCS is suspected to increase the risk of emergence of TCS-resistant bacteria and the selection of resistant strains.
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Buth, J. M.; Ross, M. R.; McNeill, K.; Arnold, W. A.Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection Chemosphere2011, 84 ( 9) 1238– 1243
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref83/cit83&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2011.05.017>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref83/cit83&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21652055>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref83/cit83&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXps1eiurY%253D>]
Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection
Buth, Jeffrey M.; Ross, Michael R.; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A.
Chemosphere (2011), 84 (9), 1238-1243 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Triclosan, a common antimicrobial agent, may react during the disinfection of wastewater with free chlorine to form three chlorinated triclosan derivs. (CTDs). This is of concern because the CTDs may be photochem. transformed to tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins when discharged into natural waters. In this study, wastewater influent, secondary (pre-disinfection) effluent, and final (post-disinfection) effluent samples were collected on two occasions each from two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, one using chlorine disinfection and one using UV disinfection. Concns. of triclosan and three CTDs were detd. using ultra performance liq. chromatog.-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with isotope diln. methodol. Triclosan and the CTDs were detected in every influent sample at levels ranging from 453 to 4530 and 2 to 98 ng L-1, resp., though both were efficiently removed from the liq. phase during activated sludge treatment. Triclosan concns. in the pre-disinfection effluent ranged from 36 to 212 ng L-1, while CTD concns. were below the limit of quantification (1 ng L-1) for most samples. In the treatment plant that used chlorine disinfection, triclosan concns. decreased while CTDs were formed during chlorination, as evidenced by CTD levels as high as 22 ng L-1 in the final effluent. No CTDs were detected in the final effluent of the treatment plant that used UV disinfection. The total CTD concn. in the final effluent of the chlorinating treatment plant reached nearly one third of the triclosan concn., demonstrating that the chlorine disinfection step played a substantial role in the fate of triclosan in this system.
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Narumiya, M.; Nakada, N.; Yamashita, N.; Tanaka, H.Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion J. Hazard. Mater.2013, 260, 305– 312
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref84/cit84&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.jhazmat.2013.05.032>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref84/cit84&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23774781>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref84/cit84&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3sXht1ylt7nP>]
Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion
Narumiya, Masanori; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki
Journal of Hazardous Materials (2013), 260 (), 305-312 CODEN: JHMAD9; ISSN:0304-3894. (Elsevier B.V.)
The fate and removal of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in 4 full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs). We measured concns. in both the liq. and solid phases of the sludge to compare the distribution ratios (Kd) between phases before and after digestion. The results showed changes in Kd values of PPCPs with carboxyl or amino functional groups, probably due to a shift of dissocn. equil. with the increase in pH. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost completely degraded (>90%); triclosan, triclocarban, and ofloxacin were moderately degraded (around 30-50%); but carbamazepine was not eliminated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows (i) the occurrence and removal of several tens of PPCPs by anaerobic sludge digestion in full-scale municipal STPs and (ii) the change of distribution between the liq. and solid phases during digestion.
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Targeted NationalSewage Sludge Survey Sampling and Analysis Technical Report. 2009. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/wastetech/biosolids/upload/2009_01_15_biosolids_tnsss-tech.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Tamura, I.; Kagota, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Yoneda, S.; Morita, J.; Nakada, N.; Kameda, Y.; Kimura, K.; Tatarazako, N.; Yamamoto, H.Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: Triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol J Appl Toxicol2013, 33 ( 11) 1222– 1229
Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol
Tamura, Ikumi; Kagota, Kei-ichiro; Yasuda, Yusuke; Yoneda, Saori; Morita, Junpei; Nakada, Norihide; Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi
Journal of Applied Toxicology (2013), 33 (11), 1222-1229 CODEN: JJATDK; ISSN:0260-437X. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
Acute and chronic (or sub-chronic) toxicity of five selected antimicrobial agents, including triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol, was investigated using the conventional three-aquatic-organism battery. These compds. are widely used in cosmetics and other personal care products and their ecol. risk has recently become a significant concern. As results of toxicity tests, TCS was found to be most strongly toxic for green algae [e.g. 72 h no obsd. effect concn. (NOEC) of 0.50 μg l-1] among the selected compds., followed by TCC, while TCC was more toxic or similar to TCS for Daphnia and fish (e.g. Daphnia 8 day NOEC of 1.9 μg l-1). Having compared the predicted no effect concn. (PNEC) detd. from the toxicity data with measured environmental concns. (MEC), the preliminary ecol. risk assessment of these five antimicrobials was conducted. The MEC/PNEC ratios of TCS and TCC were over 1 for some monitoring data, esp. in urban streams with watershed areas without sewage service coverage, and their potential risk for green algae and Daphnia might be at a level of concern, although the contribution of TCS/TCC on the total toxicity of the those sites needs to be further investigated. For the three other antimicrobials, the max. MEC/PNEC ratio for resorcinol was 0.1-1, but those for phenoxyethanol and p-thymol were <0.1 and their risk to aquatic organisms is limited, although the additive effects with TCS, TCC and other antimicrobial agents, such as parabens, need to be further examd. in future studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Lin, H.; Hu, Y. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Chen, G. R.Sorption of triclosan onto sediments and its distribution behavior in sediment-water-rhamnolipid systems Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2011, 30 ( 11) 2416– 2422
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref87/cit87&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fetc.642>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref87/cit87&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21823162>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref87/cit87&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXhtl2gur7O>]
Sorption of triclosan onto sediments and distribution behavior in sediment-rhamnolipid water systems
Lin, Hui; Hu, Yong-you; Zhang, Xiao-yu; Guo, Yan-ping; Chen, Guan-ru
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2011), 30 (11), 2416-2422 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (Wiley-Blackwell)
Triclosan has been commonly used as an antimicrobial and disinfectant agent. Distribution between water and sediment plays a key role in its occurrence, transfer, and fate in the aquatic environment. Sorption of triclosan onto sediments and the effect of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid on distribution were studied in the present work. Batch equil. expts. were performed on three different sediments, with a wide triclosan concn. range. S-shaped equations can be used to describe the sorption behavior when triclosan concn. is relative high (50-250 μg·g-1). The Pearl River, China (PR), sediment, which has the largest cumulative vol. of pores, appeared to have great capability for continuously capturing triclosan. In the lower concn. range (10-150 μg·g-1) assays, linear and Freundlich equations fitted the sorption isotherm data well. The pH value of sediment appeared to have a significant influence on sorption of low triclosan concns. Formation of rhamnolipid micelle remarkably decreased the sediment-water distribution ratio, Kd*. Evaluation of the distribution efficiency, E, suggested that pores of sediment might have played a role in triclosan distribution, whereas sediment org. matter bound triclosan and reduced solubilization of triclosan. Rhamnolipid appears to be a good sorbent for triclosan. The findings of the present study suggest that, to understand the sorption and distribution of triclosan fully, studies should be carried out over a relatively broad concn. range.
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Cantwell, M. G.; Wilson, B. A.; Zhu, J.; Wallace, G. T.; King, J. W.; Olsen, C. R.; Burgess, R. M.; Smith, J. P.Temporal trends of triclosan contamination in dated sediment cores from four urbanized estuaries: Evidence of preservation and accumulation Chemosphere2010, 78 ( 4) 347– 352
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref88/cit88&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2009.11.021>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref88/cit88&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20006371>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref88/cit88&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXpsFeg>]
Temporal trends of triclosan contamination in dated sediment cores from four urbanized estuaries: Evidence of preservation and accumulation
Cantwell, Mark G.; Wilson, Brittan A.; Zhu, Jun; Wallace, Gordon T.; King, John W.; Olsen, Curtis R.; Burgess, Robert M.; Smith, Joseph P.
Chemosphere (2010), 78 (4), 347-352 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent added to a wide array of consumer goods and personal care products. Through its use, it is introduced into municipal sewer systems where it is only partially removed during wastewater treatment. In this study, triclosan was measured in dated sediment cores from 4 urbanized estuaries to reconstruct temporal and spatial trends of accumulation. Measurable concns. of triclosan first appeared in each of the sediment cores near 1964, which corresponds with the US patent issuance date of triclosan. The presence of triclosan at each of the study sites at or near the patent date indicates that long-term preservation is occurring in estuarine sediments. Temporal trends of triclosan at each location are unique, reflecting between site variability. Concns. at one site climbed to as high as 400 ng g-1, due in part, to local com. prodn. of triclosan. At two locations, levels of triclosan rise towards the surface of each core, suggesting increasing usage in recent years. One location adjacent to a major combined sewer overflow had high sediment concns. of triclosan, confirming their potential as a source of triclosan to estuaries.
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Doudrick, K. D.; Jones, D. B.; Kalinowski, T.; Hartmann, E. M.; Halden, R. U., Assessment of the contribution of triclosan to dioxin emissions from sludge incineration in the US using a mathematical model. In Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Environment: Ecological and Human Health Considerations; Halden, R. U., Ed.; American Chemical Society: WA. 2010; Vol. 1048, pp 469– 481.
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref89/cit89&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fbk-2010-1048.ch023> ]
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Al-Rajab, A. J.; Sabourin, L.; Scott, A.; Lapen, D. R.; Topp, E.Impact of biosolids on the persistence and dissipation pathways of triclosan and triclocarban in an agricultural soil Sci. Total Environ.2009, 407 ( 23) 5978– 5985
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref90/cit90&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2009.08.003>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref90/cit90&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19733902>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref90/cit90&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXht1WqtL%252FE>]
Impact of biosolids on the persistence and dissipation pathways of triclosan and triclocarban in an agricultural soil
Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Scott, Andrew; Lapen, David R.; Topp, Edward
Science of the Total Environment (2009), 407 (23), 5978-5985 CODEN: STENDL; ISSN:0048-9697. (Elsevier B.V.)
The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used in many personal care products. Knowledge concerning the fate of these two compds. in different environmental matrixes is scarce. In this study, the fate of TCS and TCC in soil following direct addn., or when residues were applied via either liq. municipal biosolids (LMB) or dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) was investigated in lab. dissipation expts. and under outdoor conditions using radioisotope methods. In lab. incubations, 14C-TCC or 14C-TCS was added to microcosms contg. a loam soil and the rate of 14CO2 accumulation and loss of solvent-extractable 14C were detd. during incubation at 30 °C. Compared to when TCC or TCS was added directly to soil, both chems. were mineralized more rapidly when applied in LMB, and both were mineralized more slowly when applied in DMB. The application matrix had no effect on the rate of removal of extractable residues. In field expts., parent compds. were incorporated directly in soil, incorporated via LMB, or a single aggregate of amended DMB was applied to the soil surface. During the expt. soil temps. ranged from 20°C to 10°C. Dissipation was much slower in the field than in the lab. expts. Removal of nonextractable residues was faster in the presence of LMB than the other treatments. Recovery of extractable and nonextractable residues suggested that there was little atm. loss of 14C. Triclocarban readily formed nonextractable residues with DMB whereas TCS did not. Overall, this study has identified that both the pathways and the kinetics of TCS and TCC dissipation in soil are different when the chems. are carried in biosolids compared to when these chems. are added directly to the soil.
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Lawrence, J. R.; Zhu, B.; Swerhone, G. D. W.; Roy, J.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Topp, E.; Korber, D. R.Comparative microscale analysis of the effects of triclosan and triclocarban on the structure and function of river biofilm communities Sci. Total Environ.2009, 407 ( 10) 3307– 3316
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref91/cit91&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2009.01.060>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref91/cit91&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19275956>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref91/cit91&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXjslaiur4%253D>]
Comparative microscale analysis of the effects of triclosan and triclocarban on the structure and function of river biofilm communities
Lawrence, J. R.; Zhu, B.; Swerhone, G. D. W.; Roy, J.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Topp, E.; Korber, D. R.
Science of the Total Environment (2009), 407 (10), 3307-3316 CODEN: STENDL; ISSN:0048-9697. (Elsevier B.V.)
The broad spectrum antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are commonly detected in the environment. However, there is very limited understanding of the aquatic ecol. implications of these agents. During this study, river biofilms were cultivated using 10 μg/L of TCS or TCC and the equiv. in nutrients (C, N) over a developmental period of 8 wk. Confocal laser microscopy showed that the biofilm communities developing under the effect of TCS and TCC had community architecture and compn. different from either control or nutrient exposed communities. Microscale analyses of biofilm community structure indicated a significant redn. in algal biomass (p <0.05) as a result of exposure to either TCS or TCC. Thymidine incorporation did not detect significant differences between control and treated communities. The use of C utilization assays based on growth indicated that, in general, TCS and TCC suppressed utilization. The community was altered from one dominated by autotrophic processes to one dominated by heterotrophic processes. Both TCS and TCC treatments resulted in significant (p <0.05) alterations in the compn. of the EPS matrix of the communities, suggesting significant changes in community compn. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCA-ANOSIM analyses indicated a significant change occurred in the bacterial community as a consequence of TCS treatments. Enumeration of micrometazoa and protozoa revealed an increase in micrometazoan nos. over control values, whereas no clear impact on protozoa was detected in any treatment. This study indicated significant effects of 10 μg/L TCS and TCC on microbial community compn., algal biomass, architecture and activity.
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North East Biosolids Residuals Association (NEBRA). A nationalbiosolids regulation, quality, end use & disposal survey 2007. http://www.nebiosolids.org/uploads/pdf/NtlBiosolidsReport-20July07.pdf. (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Schostarez, S. E.; Schultz, M. M.Plant uptake of triclosan Abstr. Pap., Am. Chem. Soc.2007, 233, 455– 455
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Karnjanapiboonwong, A.; Chase, D. A.; Canas, J. E.; Jackson, W. A.; Maul, J. D.; Morse, A. N.; Anderson, T. A.Uptake of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol and triclosan in pinto bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.2011, 74 ( 5) 1336– 1342
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref94/cit94&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.ecoenv.2011.03.013>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref94/cit94&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21513980>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref94/cit94&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXnsVCltLs%253D>]
Uptake of 17α-ethynylestradiol and triclosan in pinto bean, Phaseolus vulgaris
Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Chase, Darcy A.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Jackson, William A.; Maul, Jonathan D.; Morse, Audra N.; Anderson, Todd A.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (2011), 74 (5), 1336-1342 CODEN: EESADV; ISSN:0147-6513. (Elsevier B.V.)
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have emerged as a group of potential environmental contaminants of concern. PPCPs in soil may enter terrestrial food webs via plant uptake. We evaluated uptake of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and triclosan in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in sand and soil. The extent of uptake and accumulation of EE2 and triclosan in plants grown in sand was higher than in plants grown in soil. In sand (conditions of max. contaminant bioavailability), bioconcn. factors (BCFs) of EE2 and triclosan in roots (based on dry wts.) were 1424 and 16,364, resp., whereas BCFs in leaves were 55 for EE2 and 85 for triclosan. In soil, the BCF of EE2 decreased from 154 in the first week to 32 in the fourth week while it fluctuated in leaves from 18 to 20. The BCF for triclosan in plants grown in soil increased over time to 12 in roots and 8 in leaves. These results indicate that the potential for uptake and accumulation of PPCPs in plants exists. This trophic transfer pathway should be considered when assessing exposure to certain PPCPs, particularly with the use of recycled wastewater for irrigation.
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Venkatesan, A. K.; Halden, R. U., Wastewater treatment plants as chemical observatories to forecast ecological and human health risks of manmade chemicals. Sci. Rep.2014, 4, (Article Number 3731).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Macherius, A.; Eggen, T.; Lorenz, W.; Moeder, M.; Ondruschka, J.; Reemtsma, T.Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment Environ. Sci. Technol.2012, 46 ( 19) 10797– 10804
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref96/cit96&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fes3028378> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref96/cit96&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22989227>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref96/cit96&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhtlOjtLjF>]
Metabolization of the Bacteriostatic Agent Triclosan in Edible Plants and its Consequences for Plant Uptake Assessment
Macherius, Andre; Eggen, Trine; Lorenz, Wilhelm; Moeder, Monika; Ondruschka, Jelka; Reemtsma, Thorsten
Environmental Science & Technology (2012), 46 (19), 10797-10804 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. (American Chemical Society)
Persistent environmental contaminants may enter agricultural fields via the application of sewage sludge, by irrigation with treated municipal wastewater or by manuring. It has been shown that such contaminants can be incorporated into crop plants. The metab. of the bacteriostatic agents triclocarban, triclosan, and its transformation product Me triclosan was studied after their uptake into carrot cell cultures. A fast metabolization of triclosan was obsd. and 8 so far unknown phase II metabolites, conjugates with saccharides, disaccharides, malonic acid, and sulfate, were identified by liq. chromatog.-mass spectrometry. Triclocarban and Me triclosan lack a phenolic group and remained unaltered in the cell cultures. Phase I metabolization was not obsd. for any of the compds. All 8 triclosan conjugates identified in the cell cultures were also detected in exts. of intact carrot plants cultivated on triclosan contaminated soils. Their total amt. in the plants was assessed to exceed the amt. of the triclosan itself by a factor of 5. This study shows that a disregard of conjugates in studies on plant uptake of environmental contaminants may severely underestimates the extent of uptake into plants and, eventually, the potential human exposure to contaminants via food of plant origin.
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Macherius, A.; Eggen, T.; Lorenz, W. G.; Reemtsma, T.; Winkler, U.; Moeder, M.Uptake of galaxolide, tonalide, and triclosan by carrot, barley, and meadow fescue plants J. Agric. Food Chem.2012, 60 ( 32) 7785– 7791
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref97/cit97&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fjf301917q> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref97/cit97&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22813076>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref97/cit97&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhtVGhs7jM>]
Uptake of Galaxolide, Tonalide, and Triclosan by Carrot, Barley, and Meadow Fescue Plants
Macherius, Andre; Eggen, Trine; Lorenz, Wilhelm Georg; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Winkler, Ursula; Moeder, Monika
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2012), 60 (32), 7785-7791 CODEN: JAFCAU; ISSN:0021-8561. (American Chemical Society)
Many xenobiotics entering wastewater treatment plants are known to be persistent during wastewater treatment and tend to adsorb to sewage sludge. The application of sewage sludge as fertilizer in agriculture may pose the risk of an incorporation of xenobiotics in the cultivated plants and, finally, an inclusion into the food chain. This study was performed to investigate the uptake of common sewage sludge contaminants, galaxolide, tonalide, and triclosan, by plants used for human consumption and livestock feeding. Barley, meadow fescue, and four carrot cultivars were sown and grown in spiked soils under greenhouse conditions. After harvesting the plants, roots and leaves were analyzed sep., and the resp. bioconcn. factors were calcd. In carrots, a concn. gradient of the xenobiotics became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. A significant influence of the differing root lipid contents on the uptake rates cannot be supported by our data, but the crucial influence of soil org. carbon content was confirmed. Barley and meadow fescue roots incorporated higher amts. of the target substances than carrots, but translocation into the leaves was negligible. The results indicated that an introduction of persistent semi- and nonpolar xenobiotics into the food chain via edible plants like carrots could be of certain relevance when sludge is applied as fertilizer. Due to low rates found for the translocation of the xenobiotics into the aerial plant parts, the entrance pathway into food products via feeding livestock is less probable.
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Schebb, N. H.; Ahn, K. C.; Dong, H.; Gee, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels Chemosphere2012, 87 ( 7) 825– 827
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref98/cit98&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2011.12.077>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref98/cit98&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22273184>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref98/cit98&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XktFGjtro%253D>]
Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels
Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.
Chemosphere (2012), 87 (7), 825-827 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concs. in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amt. present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.
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Cullinan, M. P.; Palmer, J. E.; Carle, A. D.; West, M. J.; Seymour, G. J.Long term use of triclosan toothpaste and thyroid function Sci. Total Environ.2012, 416, 75– 79
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref99/cit99&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.scitotenv.2011.11.063>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref99/cit99&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22197412>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref99/cit99&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhsV2jurk%253D>]
Long term use of triclosan toothpaste and thyroid function
Cullinan, Mary P.; Palmer, Janet E.; Carle, Anne D.; West, Malcolm J.; Seymour, Gregory J.
Science of the Total Environment (2012), 416 (), 75-79 CODEN: STENDL; ISSN:0048-9697. (Elsevier B.V.)
The long term effects of usage of triclosan-contg. toothpaste on thyroid function are currently unknown. Triclosan is structurally similar to thyroid hormones and redns. in serum thyroid hormone levels were obsd. in animal studies following oral administration of triclosan. Therefore, an assessment of thyroid function over 4 years was undertaken in a subset of individuals in a randomized, placebo controlled clin. trial comparing the effects of 0.3% triclosan toothpaste with placebo toothpaste in subjects with coronary heart disease. TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), 3(anti-TGab) and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOab) were measured. Paired serum samples at year 1 and year 5 from 132 subjects (64 triclosan group, 68 placebo group) were analyzed. At year 1 there were no significant differences in thyroid function between the groups: mean (SD) TSH 1.4 (0.8) and 1.6 (0.9) mU/L, triclosan and placebo groups resp., fT4 15.8 (2.2) and 15.2 (2.1) pmol/L; fT3 4.8 (0.5) and 4.8 (0.5) pmol/L. Similarly, for antithyroid antibodies there were no group differences at year 1. Median (25th, 75th percentile) for anti-TGab, 38 (34, 42) and 37 (30, 42) U/mL triclosan and placebo groups resp.; anti-TPOab, 15 (10, 22) and 18 (10, 24) U/mL. At year 5, fT4 was the only measure to show a significant difference between groups (mean and 95% Confidence Interval) 15.6 (15.1, 16.1) and 14.7 (14.2, 15.1) pmol/L triclosan and placebo resp. (p = 0.01). This reflects reduced levels in the placebo group but no change in the triclosan group. In conclusion, over 4 years triclosan toothpaste had no detectable effect on thyroid function. The data support the view that 0.3% triclosan in toothpaste is safe and free of significant thyroid adverse effects.
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Servos, M. R.; Smith, M.; McInnis, R.; Burnison, B. K.; Lee, B. H.; Seto, P.; Backus, S.The presence of selected pharmaceuticals and the antimicrobial triclosan in drinking water in Ontario, Canada Water Qual. Res. J. Can.2007, 42 ( 2) 130– 137
The presence of selected pharmaceuticals and the antimicrobial triclosan in drinking water in Ontario, Canada
Servos, Mark R.; Smith, Martha; McInnis, Rodney; Burnison, B. Kent; Lee, Bill-H.; Seto, Peter; Backus, Sean
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada (2007), 42 (2), 130-137 CODEN: WQRCFA; ISSN:1201-3080. (Canadian Association on Water Quality)
The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment is a rapidly emerging international issue. A variety of drugs were found in sewage effluents and surface waters in Europe, the United States, and Canada. This study examines the presence of selected pharmaceuticals (8 acidic drugs) and the antimicrobial substance, triclosan, in raw water and finished water of drinking water plants across southern Ontario. Twenty drinking water treatment plants that represented a variety of water sources and treatment process parameters were sampled. None of the raw or finished water samples taken from wells showed detectable levels of any of the acidic drugs or triclosan. River water samples downstream of sewage effluent outfalls showed the highest levels of contamination of the source water. Levels of naproxen and ibuprofen were elevated to levels as high as 176 and 150 ng/L, resp., in raw water entering the treatment plants from a river source. Low levels of gemfibrozil (19.2 ng/L), diclofenac (15 ng/L), indomethacin (6 ng/L), and the antimicrobial triclosan (34 ng/L) could be also detected in raw water from river sources. Raw water taken from large lakes also had very low but detectable levels of several acidic drugs, suggesting that these chems. are widespread in the environment. Although treatment systems are not designed to remove these specific types of substances, most of the acidic drugs were not detectable in finished waters. Naproxen and triclosan were detectable in finished water but were significantly reduced in concn. relative to the raw water. The concn. of ibuprofen was detectable in the finished water of almost all treatment plants that used surface water as a source. This work demonstrates the potential of Ontario source waters, particularly river water sources, to contain trace levels of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products. There is a need to complete a more comprehensive assessment of these compds. in source waters and of the factors influencing their treatment and removal from finished drinking water.
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Sanches-Silva, A.; Sendon-Garcia, R.; Lopez-Hernandez, J.; Paseiro-Losada, P.Determination of triclosan in foodstuffs J. Sep. Sci.2005, 28 ( 1) 65– 72
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref101/cit101&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fjssc.200401845>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref101/cit101&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15688633>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref101/cit101&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2MXot1KltA%253D%253D>]
Determination of triclosan in foodstuffs
Sanches-Silva, Ana; Sendon-Garcia, Raquel; Lopez-Hernandez, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto
Journal of Separation Science (2005), 28 (1), 65-72 CODEN: JSSCCJ; ISSN:1615-9306. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
A reverse-phase HPLC coupled with an UV detector was developed to det. triclosan which had migrated into foodstuffs from packaging materials. The method includes extn. with hexane, followed by evapn. to dryness and residue re-dissoln. in ACN 90%. Chromatog. sepn. was performed with a Kromasil 100 C18 column (15 cm × 0.4 cm ID, 5 μm particle size) at 30°C and using ACN and water as mobile phases. Regarding recoveries, good results (higher than 83% and lower than 112%) were obtained for the three representative food matrixes selected (orange juice, chicken breast meat, and Gouda cheese).
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Chung, D. W.; Papadakis, S. E.; Yam, K. L.Evaluation of a polymer coating containing triclosan as the antimicrobial layer for packaging materials Int. J. Food Sci. Technol.2003, 38 ( 2) 165– 169
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref102/cit102&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1046%2Fj.1365-2621.2003.00657.x>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref102/cit102&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3sXhtFKjsLw%253D>]
Evaluation of a polymer coating containing triclosan as the antimicrobial layer for packaging materials
Chung, Donghwan; Papadakis, Spyridon E.; Yam, Kit L.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology (2003), 38 (2), 165-169 CODEN: IJFTEZ; ISSN:0950-5423. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.)
A coating made of a styrene-acrylate copolymer and contg. triclosan (87±9 mg triclosan cm-3 coating) was evaluated as an antimicrobial layer for packaging materials. In both agar diffusion tests and liq. culture tests, inhibition of growth of Enterococcus faecalis by the triclosan-coating was obsd. Triclosan in the coating was not released into the water. Using a soln. of 10% aq. ethanol to simulate aq./acidic foods, a very small portion of the triclosan was quickly released with an estd. apparent partition coeff. of 1.7×10-5. When using n-heptane, to simulate fatty foods, most of the triclosan was extd. with an estd. apparent partition coeff. of 5.5×10-2.
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Cowan, D. M.; Kingsbury, T.; Perez, A. L.; Woods, T. A.; Kovochich, M.; Hill, D. S.; Madl, A. K.; Paustenbach, D. J.Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.2014, 68 ( 1) 23– 40
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref103/cit103&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.yrtph.2013.11.001>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref103/cit103&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=24231524>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref103/cit103&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BC2c7msFOrtw%253D%253D>]
Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers
Cowan Dallas M; Kingsbury Tony; Perez Angela L; Paustenbach Dennis J; Woods Tyler A; Kovochich Michael; Madl Amy K; Hill Denise S
Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP (2014), 68 (1), 23-40 ISSN:.
Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the 2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies.
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Johnson, R. R.; Navone, R.; Larson, E. L.An unusual epidemic of methemoglobinemia Pediatrics1963, 31, 222– 225
[PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref104/cit104&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=13957872>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref104/cit104&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADyaF387kvFKjuw%253D%253D>]
An unusual epidemic of methemoglobinemia
Pediatrics (1963), 31 (), 222-5 ISSN:0031-4005.
There is no expanded citation for this reference.
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Ponte, C.; Richard, J.; Bonte, C.; Lequien, P.; Lacombe, A.Methemoglobinemia in newborn—Discussion of etiological role of trichlorocarbanilide Sem. Hop.1974, 50 ( 16) 359– 365
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Hazards of laundry products used in the newborn nursery. Pediatrics1971, 48, ( 6), 988– 989.
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Barbaud, A.; Vigan, M.; Delrous, J. L.; Assier, H.; Avenel-Audran, M.; Collet, E.; Dehlemmes, A.; Dutartre, H.; Geraut, C.; Girardin, P.; Le Coz, C.; Milpied-Homsi, B.; Nassif, A.; Pons-Guiraud, A.; Raison-Peyron, N.; Membres du Groupe du, R.[Contact allergy to antiseptics: 75 cases analyzed by the dermato-allergovigilance network (Revidal)] Ann. Dermatol. Venereol.2005, 132 ( 12 Pt 1) 962– 5
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref107/cit107&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2FS0151-9638%2805%2979557-0>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref107/cit107&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=16446637>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref107/cit107&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD28%252FmtFWqsg%253D%253D>]
Contact allergy to antiseptics: 75 cases analyzed by the dermato-allergovigilance network (Revidal)
Barbaud A; Vigan M; Delrous J-L; Assier H; Avenel-Audran M; Collet E; Dehlemmes A; Dutartre H; Geraut C; Girardin P; Le Coz C; Milpied-Homsi B; Nassif A; Pons-Guiraud A; Raison-Peyron N
Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie (2005), 132 (12 Pt 1), 962-5 ISSN:0151-9638.
AIM: To determine the clinical features of contact dermatitis caused by antiseptics and to ascertain whether the substance responsible is the antiseptic itself or the excipients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective study based on analysis of all cases reported over a 2-year period to the Dermato-Allergology Vigilance network known as Revidal. Each dossier contained details of the clinical characteristics of lesions, the incriminated antiseptic, the mode of exposure and the results of patch tests done with the antiseptic in question. RESULTS: 75 patients (mean age: 44 years) were sensitized to chlorhexidine (14 cases), hexamidine (20 cases), povidone iodine (14 cases), mercuric antiseptics (3 cases), triclocarban (Septivon, 17 cases), hexamidine-chlorhexidine-chlorocresol (Cyteal, 4 cases), or chlorhexidine surfactant (Hibiscrub), cetrimide or chlorhexidine digluconate (Diaseptyl) (1 case each). Exposure was therapy-related (68 cases), work-related (6 cases; 5 in health workers and 1 in a cattle farmer due to povidone-iodine) or related to cosmetics (1 case, hexamidine). The clinical features consisted mainly of localized contact dermatitis, although generalized eczema occurred in 9 cases due to hexamidine contact. Sensitization was due to the antiseptic itself (53 cases) or to the excipients alone (22 cases), particularly in the 17 cases caused by Septivon. In 27/75 cases (35%), patients exhibited polysensitization to antiseptics belonging to different chemical classes or to other topical drugs. CONCLUSION: Sensitization to antiseptics is probably not rare, with various sources of exposure being present in everyday life. Patch tests are essential for diagnosis in order to distinguish between antiseptic-related and excipient-related sensitization and to screen for polysensitization to topical drugs.
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Savage, J. H.; Matsui, E. C.; Wood, R. A.; Keet, C. A.Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.2012, 130 ( 2) 453– 60 e7
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref108/cit108&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.jaci.2012.05.006>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref108/cit108&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22704536>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref108/cit108&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XovVKjsb4%253D>]
Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization
Savage, Jessica H.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Wood, Robert A.; Keet, Corinne A.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2012), 130 (2), 453-460.e7 CODEN: JACIBY; ISSN:0091-6749. (Elsevier)
Endocrine-disrupting compds. (EDCs) have immune-modulating effects. We were interested in detg. their assocn. with allergic sensitization. We sought to det. the assocn. between EDCs and allergic sensitization and whether this relationship depends on the antimicrobial properties of the EDCs, sex, or both. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examn. Survey in which urinary bisphenol A; triclosan; benzophenone-3; Pr, Me, Bu, and Et parabens; and specific IgE levels were available for 860 children. Aeroallergen and food sensitizations were defined as having at least 1 pos. (≥0.35 kU/L) specific IgE level to an aeroallergen or a food. Logistic regression was used to det. the assocn. of EDCs and sensitization. Analyses were adjusted for urinary creatinine level, age, sex, ethnicity, and poverty index ratio.The odds of aeroallergen sensitization significantly increased with the level of the antimicrobial EDCs triclosan and Pr and Bu parabens (P ≤ .04). The odds of food sensitization significantly increased with the level of urinary triclosan among male subjects (odds ratio for third vs first tertiles, 3.9; P = .02 for trend). There was a significant interaction between sex and triclosan level, with male subjects being more likely to be food sensitized with exposure (P = .03). Similar assocns. were not identified for the nonantimicrobial EDCs bisphenol A and benzophenone-3 (P > .2).As a group, EDCs are not assocd. with allergen sensitization. However, levels of the antimicrobial EDCs triclosan and parabens were significantly assocd. with allergic sensitization. The potential role of antimicrobial EDCs in allergic disease warrants further study because they are commonly used in Western society.
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Bertelsen, R. J.; Longnecker, M. P.; Lovik, M.; Calafat, A. M.; Carlsen, K. H.; London, S. J.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children Allergy2013, 68 ( 1) 84– 91
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref109/cit109&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1111%2Fall.12058>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref109/cit109&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23146048>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref109/cit109&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3sXisF2lt7w%253D>]
Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children
Bertelsen, R. J.; Longnecker, M. P.; Loevik, M.; Calafat, A. M.; Carlsen, K.-H.; London, S. J.; Carlsen, K. C. Loedrup
Allergy (Oxford, United Kingdom) (2013), 68 (1), 84-91 CODEN: LLRGDY; ISSN:0105-4538. (Wiley-Blackwell)
Background: Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chem., triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was assocd. with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-yr-old Norwegian children. Methods: Urinary concns. of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected during 2001-2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine sp. gr., parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum-specific IgE ≥ 0.35 kU/l to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results: The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concn. was 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4] compared with the ref. group (<the limit of detection), and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion: Triclosan concns. were assocd. with allergic sensitization, esp. inhalant and seasonal allergens, rather than food allergens. Current rhinitis was assocd. with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no assocn. was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide addnl. evidence for an assocn. between triclosan and allergy.
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Sicherer, S. H.; Leung, D. Y.Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012 J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.2013, 131 ( 1) 55– 66
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref110/cit110&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.jaci.2012.11.007>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref110/cit110&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23199604>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref110/cit110&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhslKqtrvE>]
Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2012
Sicherer, Scott H.; Leung, Donald Y. M.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2013), 131 (1), 55-66 CODEN: JACIBY; ISSN:0091-6749. (Elsevier)
This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2012. Studies support an increase in peanut allergy prevalence in children and exposure to the antibacterial agent triclosan and having filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations as risk factors for food sensitization. The role of specific foods in causing eosinophilic esophagitis is elucidated by several studies, and microRNA anal. is identified as a possible noninvasive disease biomarker. Studies on food allergy diagnosis emphasize the utility of component testing and the possibility of improved diagnosis through stepped approaches, epitope-binding anal., and bioinformatics. Treatment studies of food allergy show promise for oral immunotherapy, but tolerance induction remains elusive, and addnl. therapies are under study. Studies on anaphylaxis suggest an important role for platelet-activating factor and its relationship to the need for prompt treatment with epinephrine. Insights on the pathophysiol. and diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated drug allergy are offered, with novel data regarding the interaction of drugs with HLA mols. Numerous studies support influenza vaccination of persons with egg allergy using modest precautions. Evidence continues to mount that there is cross-talk between skin barrier defects and immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis. Augmentation of the skin barrier with redn. in skin inflammatory responses will likely lead to the most effective intervention in patients with this common skin disease.
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Dann, A. B.; Hontela, A.Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action J. Appl. Toxicol.2011, 31 ( 4) 285– 311
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref111/cit111&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fjat.1660>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref111/cit111&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21462230>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref111/cit111&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3MXmsF2kt7Y%253D>]
Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action
Dann, Andrea B.; Hontela, Alice
Journal of Applied Toxicology (2011), 31 (4), 285-311 CODEN: JJATDK; ISSN:0260-437X. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
A review. Triclosan [5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; TCS] is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent used in personal care, veterinary, industrial and household products. TCS is commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems, as it is only partially removed during the wastewater treatment process. Sorption, biodegrdn. and photolytic degrdn. mitigate the availability of TCS to aquatic biota; however the byproducts such as methyltriclosan and other chlorinated phenols may be more resistant to degrdn. and have higher toxicity than the parent compd. The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to TCS, coupled with its bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of the antimicrobial in a no. of aquatic species. TCS has been also detected in breast milk, urine and plasma, with levels of TCS in the blood correlating with consumer use patterns of the antimicrobial. Mammalian systemic toxicity studies indicate that TCS is neither acutely toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, nor a developmental toxicant. Recently, however, concern has been raised over TCS's potential for endocrine disruption, as the antimicrobial has been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and possibly the reproductive axis. Moreover, there is strong evidence that aquatic species such as algae, invertebrates and certain types of fish are much more sensitive to TCS than mammals. TCS is highly toxic to algae and exerts reproductive and developmental effects in some fish. The potential for endocrine disruption and antibiotic cross-resistance highlights the importance of the judicious use of TCS, whereby the use of TCS should be limited to applications where it has been shown to be effective. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Consortium, T. High Production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge Program Data Availability and Screening Level Assessment for Triclocarban CAS #2002, 101–20–2, 201– 14186A
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agengy. Screening-Level Hazard Characterization of High Production Volume Chemicals 2008. http://www.epa.gov/hpvis/hazchar/101202_Triclocarban_HC_INTERIM_March%202008.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Cherednichenko, G.; Zhang, R.; Bannister, R. A.; Timofeyev, V.; Li, N.; Fritsch, E. B.; Feng, W.; Barrientos, G. C.; Schebb, N. H.; Hammock, B. D.; Beam, K. G.; Chiamvimonvat, N.; Pessah, I. N.Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.2012, 109 ( 35) 14158– 14163
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref114/cit114&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1073%2Fpnas.1211314109>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref114/cit114&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22891308>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref114/cit114&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XhsVeju7bE>]
Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle
Cherednichenko, Gennady; Zhang, Rui; Bannister, Roger A.; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Li, Ning; Fritscha, Erika B.; Feng, Wei; Barrientos, Genaro C.; Schebb, Nils H.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Beam, Kurt G.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Pessah, Isaac N.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2012), 109 (35), 14158-14163, S14158/1-S14158/6 CODEN: PNASA6; ISSN:0027-8424. (National Academy of Sciences)
Triclosan (TCS), a high-prodn.-vol. chem. used as a bactericide in personal care products, is a priority pollutant of growing concern to human and environmental health. TCS is capable of altering the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), but its potential to influence physiol. excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and muscle function has not been investigated. Here, we report that TCS impairs ECC of both cardiac and skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo. TCS acutely depresses hemodynamics and grip strength in mice at doses ≥12.5 mg/kg i.p., and a concn. ≥0.52 μM in water compromises swimming performance in larval fathead minnow. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal myotubes, and adult flexor digitorum brevis fibers TCS depresses elec. evoked ECC within 10-20 min. In myotubes, nanomolar to low micromolar TCS initially potentiates elec. evoked Ca2+ transients followed by complete failure of ECC, independent of Ca2+ store depletion or block of RyR1 channels. TCS also completely blocks excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry. Voltage clamp expts. showed that TCS partially inhibits L-type Ca2+ currents of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and [3H]PN200 binding to skeletal membranes is noncompetitively inhibited by TCS in the same concn. range that enhances [3H]ryanodine binding. TCS potently impairs orthograde and retrograde signaling between L-type Ca2+ and RyR channels in skeletal muscle, and L-type Ca2+ entry in cardiac muscle, revealing a mechanism by which TCS weakens cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility in a manner that may neg. impact muscle health, esp. in susceptible populations.
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Binelli, A.; Cogni, D.; Parolini, M.; Riva, C.; Provini, A.In vivo experiments for the evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of triclosan in zebra mussel hemocytes Aquat. Toxicol.2009, 91 ( 3) 238– 44
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref115/cit115&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.aquatox.2008.11.008>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref115/cit115&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19117617>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref115/cit115&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXhtlSgt7w%253D>]
In vivo experiments for the evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Triclosan in Zebra mussel hemocytes
Binelli, A.; Cogni, D.; Parolini, M.; Riva, C.; Provini, A.
Aquatic Toxicology (2009), 91 (3), 238-244 CODEN: AQTODG; ISSN:0166-445X. (Elsevier B.V.)
In this work, the authors investigated the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the antibacterial agent Triclosan in hemocytes of the freshwater bivalve zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). For this study, several biomarkers were used for in vivo expts. (96 h of exposure) carried out at 3 possible environmental Triclosan concns. (1, 2, 3 nM). The authors used the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the micronucleus test (MN test), and the measure of the apoptotic frequency (Halo assay) to measure the genotoxic potential of Triclosan, and the neutral red retention assay (NRRA) as a measure of lysosomal membrane stability to identify general cellular stress. Significant increases were obsd. in all of the genotoxic biomarkers examd. as early as 24 h after initial exposure, as well as a clear destabilization of lysosomal membranes (after 48 h), indicating that this chem. is potentially dangerous for the entire aquatic biocoenosis. A comparison of these in vivo data with existing data from in vitro expts. allowed to suggest possible mechanisms of action for Triclosan in this bivalve. Although further studies are needed to confirm the possible modes of action, the study is the first to report on the effects of this widespread antibiotic on freshwater invertebrates.
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Schebb, N. H.; Buchholz, B. A.; Hammock, B. D.; Rice, R. H.Metabolism of the antibacterial triclocarban by human epidermal keratinocytes to yield protein adducts J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.2012, 26 ( 6) 230– 234
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref116/cit116&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fjbt.21411>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref116/cit116&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22711420>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref116/cit116&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38Xosleiurg%253D>]
Metabolism of the antibacterial triclocarban by human epidermal keratinocytes to yield protein adducts
Schebb, Nils Helge; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Rice, Robert H.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology (2012), 26 (6), 230-234 CODEN: JBMTFQ; ISSN:1095-6670. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
Previous studies of triclocarban suggest that its biotransformation could yield reactive metabolites that form protein adducts. Since the skin is the major route of triclocarban exposure, present work examd. this possibility in cultured human keratinocytes. The results provide evidence for considerable biotransformation and protein adduct formation when cytochrome P 450 activity is induced in the cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a model Ah receptor ligand. Since detecting low adduct levels in cells and tissues is difficult, we utilized the novel approach of accelerator mass spectrometry for this purpose. Exploiting the sensitivity of the method, we demonstrated that a substantial portion of triclocarban forms adducts with keratinocyte protein under the P 450 inducing conditions employed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 26:230-234, 2012; View this article online at www.wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/jbt.21411.
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Daughton, C. G.; Ternes, T. A.Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ. Health Perspect.1999, 107 ( Suppl 6) 907– 38
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref117/cit117&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.2307%2F3434573>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref117/cit117&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10592150>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref117/cit117&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3cXos1OhtA%253D%253D>]
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?
Daughton, Christian G.; Ternes, Thomas A.
Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements (1999), 107 (6), 907-938 CODEN: EHPSEO; ISSN:1078-0475. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)
A review with 154 refs. During the last three decades, the impact of chem. pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, esp. those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chems., however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chems. receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compds. and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixts. via a no. of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change-change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecol. succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concns. (ng-μg/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment serves to sustain perpetual life-cycle exposures for aquatic organisms. This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community.
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Bergman, A.; Heindel, J.; Jobling, S.; Kidd, K.; Zoeller, R. T.State-of-the-science of endocrine disrupting chemicals, 2012 Toxicol. Lett.2012, 211, S3– S3
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Diamanti-Kandarakis, E.; Bourguignon, J. P.; Giudice, L. C.; Hauser, R.; Prins, G. S.; Soto, A. M.; Zoeller, R. T.; Gore, A. C.Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: An endocrine society scientific statement Endocrin. Rev.2009, 30 ( 4) 293– 342
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref119/cit119&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1210%2Fer.2009-0002>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref119/cit119&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19502515>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref119/cit119&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXosVejt74%253D>]
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an endocrine society scientific statement
Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Giudice, Linda C.; Hauser, Russ; Prins, Gail S.; Soto, Ana M.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Gore, Andrea C.
Endocrine Reviews (2009), 30 (4), 293-342 CODEN: ERVIDP; ISSN:0163-769X. (Endocrine Society)
A review. There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chems. (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metab., or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control or reprodn. In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society, we present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reprodn., breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinol., thyroid, metab. and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinol. Results from animal models, human clin. observations, and epidemiol. studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health. The mechanisms of EDCs involve divergent pathways including (but not limited to) estrogenic, antiandrogenic, thyroid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, retinoid, and actions through other nuclear receptors; steroidogenic enzymes; neurotransmitter receptors and systems; and many other pathways that are highly conserved in wildlife and humans, and which can be modeled in lab. in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, EDCs represent a broad class of mols. such as organochlorinated pesticides and industrial chems., plastics and plasticizers, fuels, and many other chems. that are present in the environment or are in widespread use. We make a no. of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clin. research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness.
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Chen, J. G.; Ahn, K. C.; Gee, N. A.; Ahmed, M. I.; Duleba, A. J.; Zhao, L.; Gee, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.; Lasley, B. L.Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: A new type of endocrine disruptor? Endocrinology2008, 149 ( 3) 1173– 1179
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref120/cit120&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1210%2Fen.2007-1057>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref120/cit120&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18048496>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref120/cit120&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXisVaqt7s%253D>]
Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: a new type of endocrine disruptor?
Chen, Jiangang; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Nancy A.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Zhao, Ling; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lasley, Bill L.
Endocrinology (2008), 149 (3), 1173-1179 CODEN: ENDOAO; ISSN:0013-7227. (Endocrine Society)
Many xenobiotics have been assocd. with endocrine effects in a wide range of biol. systems. These assocns. are usually between small nonsteroid mols. and steroid receptor signaling systems. In this report, triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide), a common ingredient in personal care products that is used as an antimicrobial agent was evaluated and found to represent a new category of endocrine-disrupting substance. A cell-based androgen receptor-mediated bioassay was used to demonstrate that TCC and other urea compds. with a similar structure, which have little or no endocrine activity when tested alone, act to enhance testosterone (T)-induced androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in vitro. This amplification effect of TCC was also apparent in vivo when 0.25% TCC was added to the diet of castrated male rats that were supported by exogenous testosterone treatment for 10 d. All male sex accessory organs increased significantly in size after the T+TCC treatment, compared with T or TCC treatments alone. The data presented here suggest that the bioactivity of endogenous hormones may be amplified by exposure to com. personal care products contg. sufficient levels of TCC.
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Crofton, K. M.; Paul, K. B.; De Vito, M. J.; Hedge, J. M.Short-term in vivo exposure to the water contaminant triclosan: Evidence for disruption of thyroxine Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.2007, 24 ( 2) 194– 197
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref121/cit121&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.etap.2007.04.008>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref121/cit121&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21783810>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref121/cit121&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2sXot1yjtr8%253D>]
Short-term in vivo exposure to the water contaminant triclosan: Evidence for disruption of thyroxine
Crofton, Kevin M.; Paul, Katie B.; DeVito, Michael J.; Hedge, Joan M.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (2007), 24 (2), 194-197 CODEN: ETOPFR; ISSN:1382-6689. (Elsevier B.V.)
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a chlorinated phenolic antibacterial compd. found as an active ingredient in many personal care and household products. The structural similarity of triclosan to thyroid hormones and recent studies demonstrating activation of the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and inhibition of diiodothyronine (T2) sulfotransferases have raised concerns about adverse effects on thyroid homeostasis. The current research tested the hypothesis that triclosan alters circulating concns. of thyroxine. The hypothesis was tested using a 4-day oral triclosan exposure (0-1000 mg/kg/day) in weanling female Long-Evans rats, followed by measurement of circulating levels of serum total thyroxine (T4). Dose-dependent decreases in total T4 were obsd. The benchmark dose (BMD) and lower bound on the BMD (BMDL) for the effects on T4 were 69.7 and 35.6 mg/kg/day, resp. These data demonstrate that triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats.
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Zorrilla, L. M.; Gibson, E. K.; Jeffay, S. C.; Crofton, K. M.; Setzer, W. R.; Cooper, R. L.; Stoker, T. E.The Effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male wistar rats Toxicol. Sci.2009, 107 ( 1) 56– 64
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref122/cit122&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1093%2Ftoxsci%2Fkfn225>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref122/cit122&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18940961>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref122/cit122&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1cXhsV2ku7nO>]
The Effects of Triclosan on Puberty and Thyroid Hormones in Male Wistar Rats
Zorrilla, Leah M.; Gibson, Emily K.; Jeffay, Susan C.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Setzer, Woodrow R.; Cooper, Ralph L.; Stoker, Tammy E.
Toxicological Sciences (2009), 107 (1), 56-64 CODEN: TOSCF2; ISSN:1096-6080. (Oxford University Press)
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent antibacterial and antifungal compd. that is widely used in personal care products, plastics, and fabrics. Recently Triclosan has been shown to alter endocrine function in a variety of species. The purpose of this study was to det. the effects of Triclosan on pubertal development and thyroid hormone concns. in the male rat. Weanling rats were exposed to 0, 3, 30, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Triclosan by oral gavage from postnatal day (PND) 23 to 53. Preputial sepn. (PPS) was examd. beginning on PND 33. Rats were killed on PND 53, organ wts. were recorded, and serum was collected for subsequent anal. Triclosan did not affect growth or the onset of PPS. Serum testosterone was significantly decreased at 200 mg/kg; however, no effects were obsd. on androgen-dependent reproductive tissue wts. Triclosan significantly decreased total serum thyroxine (T4) in a dose-dependent manner at 30 mg/kg and higher (no-obsd.-effect level of 3 mg/kg). Triiodothyronine (T3) was significantly decreased only at 200 mg/kg but TSH was not different at any dose. Liver wts. were significantly increased at 100 mg/kg Triclosan and above suggesting that the induction of hepatic enzymes may have contributed to the altered T4 and T3 concns. but it does not appear to correlate with the T4 dose-response. This study demonstrates that Triclosan exposure does not alter androgen-dependent tissue wts. or onset of PPS; however, Triclosan exposure significantly impacts thyroid hormone concns. in the male juvenile rat.
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Paul, K. B.; Hedge, J. M.; DeVito, M. J.; Crofton, K. M.Short-term exposure to triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in young long-evans rats Toxicol. Sci.2010, 113 ( 2) 367– 379
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref123/cit123&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1093%2Ftoxsci%2Fkfp271>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref123/cit123&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19910387>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref123/cit123&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXntlGltw%253D%253D>]
Short-term Exposure to Triclosan Decreases Thyroxine In Vivo via Upregulation of Hepatic Catabolism in Young Long-Evans Rats
Paul, Katie B.; Hedge, Joan M.; De Vito, Michael J.; Crofton, Kevin M.
Toxicological Sciences (2010), 113 (2), 367-379 CODEN: TOSCF2; ISSN:1096-6080. (Oxford University Press)
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a chlorinated phenolic antibacterial compd. found in consumer products. In vitro human pregnane X receptor activation, hepatic phase I enzyme induction, and decreased in vivo total thyroxine (T4) suggest adverse effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis. Current research tested the hypothesis that triclosan decreases circulating T4 via upregulation of hepatic catabolism and transport. Weanling female Long-Evans rats received triclosan (0-1000 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 days. Whole blood and liver were collected 24 h later. Total serum T4, triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH were measured by RIA. Hepatic microsomal assays measured ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase enzyme activities. The mRNA expression of cytochrome P 450s 1a1, 2b1/2, and 3a1/23; UGTs 1a1, 1a6, and 2b5; sulfotransferases 1c1 and 1b1; and hepatic transporters Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Mrp2, and Mdr1b was measured by quant. reverse transcriptase PCR. Total T4 decreased dose responsively, down to 43% of control at 1000 mg/kg/day. Total T3 was decreased to 89 and 75% of control at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day. TSH did not change. Triclosan dose dependently increased PROD activity up to 900% of control at 1000 mg/kg/day. T4 glucuronidation increased nearly twofold at 1000 mg/kg/day. Cyp2b1/2 and Cyp3a1/23 mRNA expression levels were induced twofold and fourfold at 300 mg/kg/day. Ugt1a1 and Sult1c1 mRNA expression levels increased 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold at 300 mg/kg/day. Transporter mRNA expression levels were unchanged. These data denote important key events in the mode of action for triclosan-induced hypothyroxinemia in rats and suggest that this effect may be partially due to upregulation of hepatic catabolism but not due to mRNA expression changes in the tested hepatic transporters.
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Paul, K. B.; Hedge, J. M.; Bansal, R.; Zoeller, R. T.; Peter, R.; DeVito, M. J.; Crofton, K. M.Developmental triclosan exposure decreases maternal, fetal, and early neonatal thyroxine: A dynamic and kinetic evaluation of a putative mode-of-action Toxicology2012, 300 ( 1–2) 31– 45
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref124/cit124&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.tox.2012.05.023>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref124/cit124&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22659317>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref124/cit124&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XptFGjtrk%253D>]
Developmental triclosan exposure decreases maternal, fetal, and early neonatal thyroxine: A dynamic and kinetic evaluation of a putative mode-of-action
Paul, Katie B.; Hedge, Joan M.; Bansal, Ruby; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Peter, Robert; DeVito, Michael J.; Crofton, Kevin M.
Toxicology (2012), 300 (1-2), 31-45 CODEN: TXCYAC; ISSN:0300-483X. (Elsevier Ltd.)
This work tests the mode-of-action (MOA) hypothesis that maternal and developmental triclosan (TCS) exposure decreases circulating thyroxine (T4) concns. via up-regulation of hepatic catabolism and elimination of T4. Time-pregnant Long-Evans rats received TCS po (0-300 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Serum and liver were collected from dams (GD20, PND22) and offspring (GD20, PND4, PND14, PND21). Serum T4, triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH concns. were measured by RIA. Ethoxy-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase (PROD) and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) enzyme activities were measured in liver microsomes. Custom Taqman qPCR arrays were employed to measure hepatic mRNA expression of select cytochrome P 450s, UGTs, sulfotransferases, transporters, and thyroid hormone-responsive genes. TCS was quantified by LC/MS/MS in serum and liver. Serum T4 decreased approx. 30% in GD20 dams and fetuses, PND4 pups and PND22 dams (300 mg/kg/day). Hepatic PROD activity increased 2-3-fold in PND4 pups and PND22 dams, and UGT activity was 1.5-fold higher in PND22 dams only (300 mg/kg/day). Minor up-regulation of Cyp2b and Cyp3a expression in dams was consistent with hypothesized activation of the constitutive androstane and/or pregnane X receptor. T4 redns. of 30% for dams and GD20 and PND4 offspring with concomitant increases in PROD (PND4 neonates and PND22 dams) and UGT activity (PND22 dams) suggest that up-regulated hepatic catabolism may contribute to TCS-induced hypothyroxinemia during development. Serum and liver TCS concns. demonstrated greater fetal than postnatal internal exposure, consistent with the lack of T4 changes in PND14 and PND21 offspring. These data support the MOA hypothesis that TCS exposure leads to hypothyroxinemia via increased hepatic catabolism; however, the minor effects on thyroid hormone metab. may reflect the low efficacy of TCS as thyroid hormone disruptor or highlight the possibility that other MOAs may also contribute to the obsd. maternal and early neonatal hypothyroxinemia.
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Rodriguez, P. E. A.; Sanchez, M. S.Maternal exposure to triclosan impairs thyroid homeostasis and female pubertal development in wistar rat offspring J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A2010, 73 ( 24) 1678– 1688
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref125/cit125&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1080%2F15287394.2010.516241>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref125/cit125&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21058171>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref125/cit125&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXhtlyksbrI>]
Maternal Exposure to Triclosan Impairs Thyroid Homeostasis and Female Pubertal Development in Wistar Rat Offspring
Rodriguez, Pablo E. A.; Sanchez, Monica S.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues (2010), 73 (24), 1678-1688 CODEN: JTEHF8; ISSN:1528-7394. (Taylor & Francis, Inc.)
Although the effects of triclosan have been examd. in male reproductive functions, it is unknown whether this potent antibacterial agent affects pregnancy and female pubertal development. Effects of maternal exposure to triclosan on thyroid homeostasis (TH) and reproductive-tract development in female Wistar rats were thus studied. Dams were exposed daily to triclosan (0, 1, 10, or 50 mg/kg/d) from 8 d before mating to lactation day 21. Offspring were also exposed after weaning. In vivo triclosan estrogenic activity was screened by uterotrophic assay and vaginal opening (VO), with first estrus and uterus and ovarian wt. detd. in offspring. Dam blood samples were taken during pregnancy and lactation to examine the effect of triclosan on TH. No apparent external signs of toxicity or differences in mean nos. of implantation sites were obsd. in treated rats. Triclosan treatment decreased total serum T4 and T3 in pregnant rats and also lowered sex ratio, lowered pup body wts. on postnatal day (PND) 20, and delayed VO in offspring. In addn., the highest dose of triclosan significantly reduced the live birth index (percentage) and 6-d survival index. Data indicate that triclosan impairs thyroid homeostasis and reproductive toxicity in adult rats and produces fetal toxicity in offspring exposed in utero, during lactation, and after weaning.
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McMurry, L. M.; Oethinger, M.; Levy, S. B.Overexpression of marA, soxS, or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in laboratory and clinical strains of Escherichia coli FEMS. Microbiol. Lett.1998, 166 ( 2) 305– 309
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref126/cit126&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1111%2Fj.1574-6968.1998.tb13905.x>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref126/cit126&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=9770288>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref126/cit126&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADyaK1cXls1OrtrY%253D>]
Overexpression of marA, soxS, or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in Escherichia coli
McMurry, Laura M.; Oethinger, Margret; Levy, Stuart B.
FEMS Microbiology Letters (1998), 166 (2), 305-309 CODEN: FMLED7; ISSN:0378-1097. (Elsevier Science B.V.)
Triclosan (Irgasan) is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent used in handsoaps, toothpastes, fabrics, and plastics. It inhibits lipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, probably by action upon enoyl reductase (FabI) (McMurry, L.M., Oethinger, M. and Levy, S.B. Nature, in press). We report here that overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump locus acrAB, or of marA or soxS, both encoding pos. regulators of acrAB, decreased susceptibility to triclosan 2-fold. Deletion of the acrAB locus increased the susceptibility to triclosan approx. 10-fold. Four of five clin. E. coli strains which overexpressed marA or soxS also showed enhanced triclosan resistance. The acrAB locus was involved in the effects of triclosan upon both cell growth rate and cell lysis.
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McMurry, L. M.; McDermott, P. F.; Levy, S. B.Genetic evidence that InhA of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a target for triclosan Antimicrob. Agents Chem.1999, 43 ( 3) 711– 713
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Aiello, A. E.; Larson, E. L.; Levy, S. B.Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky? Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America2007, 45 ( Suppl 2) S137– 47
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref128/cit128&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1086%2F519255>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref128/cit128&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=17683018>]
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Levy, S. B.Antibacterial household products: Cause for concern Emerging Infect. Dis.2001, 7 ( 3 Suppl) 512– 5
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref129/cit129&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.3201%2Feid0707.017705>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref129/cit129&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=11485643>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref129/cit129&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3MXmsV2ls70%253D>]
Antibacterial household products. Cause for concern
Levy, Stuart B.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (2001), 7 (3, Suppl.), 512-515 CODEN: EIDIFA; ISSN:1080-6040. (National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A brief review with 23 ref. The recent entry of products contg. antibacterial agents into healthy households has escalated from a few dozen products in the mid-1990s to more than 700 today. Antibacterial products were developed and were successfully used to prevent transmission of disease-causing microorganisms among patients, particularly in hospitals. They are now being added to products used in healthy households, even though an added health benefit was not demonstrated. Scientists are concerned that the antibacterial agents will select bacteria resistant to them and cross-resistant to antibiotics. Moreover, if they alter a person's microflora, they may neg. affect the normal maturation of the T helper cell response of the immune system to commensal flora antigens; this change could lead to a greater chance of allergies in children. As with antibiotics, prudent use of these products is urged. Their designated purpose is to protect vulnerable patients.
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Yazdankhah, S. P.; Scheie, A. A.; Hoiby, E. A.; Lunestad, B. T.; Heir, E.; Fotland, T. O.; Naterstad, K.; Kruse, H.Triclosan and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria: An overview Microb. Drug Resist.2006, 12 ( 2) 83– 90
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref130/cit130&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1089%2Fmdr.2006.12.83>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref130/cit130&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=16922622>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref130/cit130&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD28XntVWltrY%253D>]
Triclosan and Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria: An Overview
Yazdankhah, Siamak P.; Scheie, Anne A.; Hoiby, E. Arne; Lunestad, Bjorn-Tore; Heir, Even; Fotland, Tor Oystein; Naterstad, Kristine; Kruse, Hilde
Microbial Drug Resistance (New Rochelle, NY, United States) (2006), 12 (2), 83-90 CODEN: MDREFJ; ISSN:1076-6294. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.)
A review. Triclosan is a widely used biocide that is considered as an effective antimicrobial agent against different microorganisms. It is included in many contemporary consumer and personal health-care products, like oral and dermal products, but also in household items, including plastics and textiles. At bactericidal concns., triclosan appears to act upon multiple nonspecific targets, causing disruption of bacterial cell wall functions, while at sublethal concns., triclosan affects specific targets. During the 1990s, bacterial isolates with reduced susceptibility to triclosan were produced in lab. expts. by repeated exposure to sublethal concns. of the agent. Since 2000, a no. of studies have verified the occurrence of triclosan resistance amongst dermal, intestinal, and environmental microorganisms, including some of clin. relevance. Of major concern is the possibility that triclosan resistance may contribute to reduced susceptibility to clin. important antimicrobials, due to either cross-resistance or co-resistance mechanisms. Although the no. of studies elucidating the assocn. between triclosan resistance and resistance to other antimicrobials in clin. isolates has been limited, recent lab. studies have confirmed the potential for such a link in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Thus, widespread use of triclosan may represent a potential public health risk in regard to development of concomitant resistance to clin. important antimicrobials.
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Braoudaki, M.; Hilton, A. C.Low level of cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics in Escherichia coli K-12 and E. coli O55 compared to E-coli O157 FEMS Microbiol. Lett.2004, 235 ( 2) 305– 309
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref131/cit131&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1111%2Fj.1574-6968.2004.tb09603.x>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref131/cit131&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15183878>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref131/cit131&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2cXks1eqtbw%253D>]
Low level of cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics in Escherichia coli K-12 and E. coli O55 compared to E. coli O157
Braoudaki, Maria; Hilton, Anthony Craig
FEMS Microbiology Letters (2004), 235 (2), 305-309 CODEN: FMLED7; ISSN:0378-1097. (Elsevier Science B.V.)
Misuse of biocides has encouraged the emergence of resistance and cross-resistance in certain strains. This study investigated resistance of triclosan-adapted Escherichia coli K-12 and E. coli O55 to antimicrobial agents and compared these to E. coli O157:H7. Cross-resistance in E. coli K-12 and E. coli O55 was obsd. however to a lesser extent than in E. coli O157:H7. Triclosan-adapted E. coli K-12 demonstrated cross-resistance to chloramphenicol, whereas triclosan-adapted E. coli O55 exhibited resistance to trimethoprim. In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 was resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim, benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine suggesting strain specific rather than general resistance mechanisms.
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Pycke, B. F. G.; Crabbe, A.; Verstraete, W.; Leys, N.Characterization of Triclosan-resistant mutants reveals multiple antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2010, 76 ( 10) 3116– 3123
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref132/cit132&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1128%2FAEM.02757-09>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref132/cit132&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=20305019>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref132/cit132&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXmsF2ltLs%253D>]
Characterization of triclosan-resistant mutants reveals multiple antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H
Pycke, Benny F. G.; Crabbe, Aurelie; Verstraete, Willy; Leys, Natalie
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2010), 76 (10), 3116-3123 CODEN: AEMIDF; ISSN:0099-2240. (American Society for Microbiology)
Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms were identified in 11 spontaneous high- and low-level triclosan resistance (Tcsr) mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H by genotyping complemented with transcriptional analyses, antibiotic resistance screening, and membrane permeability analyses. High-end Tcsr (MIC = 8 mg/L) was the result of a FabI1(G98V) mutation. This point mutation led to an even higher level of Tcsr (MIC ≥ 16 mg/L) in combination with constitutive upregulation of mexB and mexF efflux pump homologs. Hence, a mechanistic synergy of constitutive efflux pump expression and a FabI1 point mutation could prevent TCS-induced cell permeabilization, which was shown to occur between 4 and 8 mg/L TCS in the R. rubrum S1H parent strain. Low-level Tcsr mutants constitutively upregulated the emrAB, mexAB, and/or mexF homolog. The mutants that overexpressed emrAB also derepressed the micropollutant-upregulated factors mufA1 and mufM. In some cases, low-level Tcsr decreased innate resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline, while in others, a triclosan-induced antibiotic cross-resistance was shown for chloramphenicol and carbenicillin. This study showed that the TCS resistance degree is dependent of the initial exposure concn. in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H and that similar resistance degrees can be the result of different defense mechanisms, which all have distinct antibiotic cross-resistance profiles.
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McBain, A. J.; Bartolo, R. G.; Catrenich, C. E.; Charbonneau, D.; Ledder, R. G.; Price, B. B.; Gilbert, P.Exposure of sink drain microcosms to triclosan: Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2003, 69 ( 9) 5433– 5442
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref133/cit133&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1128%2FAEM.69.9.5433-5442.2003>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref133/cit133&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12957932>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref133/cit133&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3sXntlSju7Y%253D>]
Exposure of sink drain microcosms to triclosan: Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility
McBain, Andrew J.; Bartolo, Robert G.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Charbonneau, Duane; Ledder, Ruth G.; Price, Bradford B.; Gilbert, Peter
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2003), 69 (9), 5433-5442 CODEN: AEMIDF; ISSN:0099-2240. (American Society for Microbiology)
Recent concern that the increased use of triclosan (TCS) in consumer products may contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led us to examine the effects of TCS dosing on domestic-drain biofilm microcosms. TCS-contg. domestic detergent (TCSD) markedly lowered biofouling at 50% (wt/vol) but was poorly effective at use levels. Long-term microcosms were established and stabilized for 6 mo before one was subjected to successive 3-mo exposures to TCSD at sublethal concns. (0.2 and 0.4% [wt/vol]). Culturable bacteria were identified by 16S rDNA sequence anal., and their susceptibilities to four biocides and six antibiotics were detd. Microcosms harbored ca. 10 log10 CFU/g of biofilm, representing at least 27 species, mainly gamma proteobacteria, and maintained dynamic stability. Viable cell counts were largely unaffected by TCSD exposure, but species diversity was decreased, as corroborated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis anal. TCS susceptibilities ranged widely within bacterial groups, and TCS-tolerant strains (including aeromonads, pseudomonads, stenotrophomonads, and Alcaligenes spp.) were isolated before and after TCSD exposure. Several TCS-tolerant bacteria related to Achromobacter xylosoxidans became clonally expanded during dosing. TCSD addn. did not significantly affect the community profiles of susceptibility to the test biocides or antibiotics. Several microcosm isolates, as well as ref. bacteria, caused clearing of particulate TCS in solid media. Incubations of consortia and isolates with particulate TCS in liq. led to putative TCS degrdn. by the consortia and TCS solubilization by the ref. strains. Our results support the view that low-level exposure of environmental microcosms to TCS does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility and that TCS is degradable by common domestic biofilms.
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Higgins, C. P.; Paesani, Z. J.; Chalew, T. E. A.; Halden, R. U.Bioaccumulation of triclocarban in Lumbriculus variegatus Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2009, 28 ( 12) 2580– 2586
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref134/cit134&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1897%2F09-013.1>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref134/cit134&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19655999>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref134/cit134&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXhsV2lt7fN>]
Bioaccumulation of triclocarban in Lumbriculus variegatus
Higgins, Christopher P.; Paesani, Zachary J.; Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Halden, Rolf U.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2009), 28 (12), 2580-2586 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (SETAC Press)
The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) has been detected in streams and municipal biosolids throughout the United States. In addn., TCC and potential TCC transformation products have been detected at high levels (ppm range) in sediments near major cities in the United States. Previous work has suggested that TCC is relatively stable in these environments, thereby raising concerns about the potential for bioaccumulation in sediment-dwelling organisms. Bioaccumulation of TCC from sediments was assessed using the freshwater oligochaete L. variegatus. Worms were exposed to TCC in sediment spiked to 22.4 ppm to simulate the upper bound of environmental concns. Uptake from lab.-spiked sediment was examd. over 56 d for TCC and 4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC), a chem. impurity in and potential transformation product of TCC. The clearance of TCC from worms placed in clean sediment was also examd. over 21 d after an initial 35-d exposure to TCC in lab.-spiked sediment. Concns. of TCC and DCC were monitored in the worms, sediment, and the overlying water using liq. chromatog./tandem mass spectrometry. Exptl. data were fitted using a std. biodynamic model to generate uptake and elimination rate consts. for TCC in L. variegatus. These rate consts. were used to est. steady-state lipid (lip)- and org. carbon (OC)-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for TCC and DCC of 2.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 g OC/g lip (goc/glip), resp. Alternatively, directly measured BSAFs for TCC and DCC after 56 d of exposure were 1.6 ± 0.6 and 0.5 ± 0.2 goc/glip, resp. Loss of TCC from pre-exposed worms followed first-order kinetics, and the fitted elimination rate const. was identical to that detd. from the uptake portion of the present study. Overall, study observations indicate that TCC bioaccumulates from sediments in a manner that is consistent with the traditional hydrophobic org. contaminant paradigm.
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Fair, P. A.; Lee, H. B.; Adams, J.; Darling, C.; Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M.; Bossart, G. D.; Henry, N.; Muir, D.Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment Environ. Pollut.2009, 157 ( 8–9) 2248– 2254
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref135/cit135&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.envpol.2009.04.002>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref135/cit135&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19410343>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref135/cit135&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXntVGhsbY%253D>]
Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment
Fair, Patricia A.; Lee, Hing-Biu; Adams, Jeff; Darling, Colin; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran; Bossart, Gregory D.; Henry, Natasha; Muir, Derek
Environmental Pollution (Oxford, United Kingdom) (2009), 157 (8-9), 2248-2254 CODEN: ENPOEK; ISSN:0269-7491. (Elsevier Ltd.)
The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chem., is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concns. in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet wt. (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concns. were 0.072 ng/g wet wt. (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.
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Pannu, M. W.; O’Connor, G. A.; Toor, G. S.Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclosan in terrestrial organisms Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2012, 31 ( 3) 646– 653
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref136/cit136&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1002%2Fetc.1721>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref136/cit136&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=22180230>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref136/cit136&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC38XjsVOjtLY%253D>]
Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclosan in terrestrial organisms
Pannu, Manmeet W.; O'Connor, George A.; Toor, Gurpal S.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2012), 31 (3), 646-653 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (Wiley-Blackwell)
Triclosan (TCS) is a common constituent of personal care products and is frequently present in biosolids. Application of biosolids to land transfers significant amts. of TCS to soils. Because TCS is an antimicrobial and is toxic to some aquatic organisms, concern has arisen that TCS may adversely affect soil organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of biosolids-borne TCS in terrestrial micro- and macro-organisms (earthworms). Studies were conducted in 2 biosolids-amended soils (sand, silty clay loam), following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) guidelines. At the concns. tested herein, microbial toxicity tests suggested no adverse effects of TCS on microbial respiration, ammonification, and nitrification. The no obsd. effect concn. for TCS for microbial processes was 10 mg/kg soil. Earthworm subchronic toxicity tests showed that biosolids-borne TCS was not toxic to earthworms at the concns. tested herein. The estd. TCS earthworm lethal concn. (LC50) was greater than 1 mg/kg soil. Greater TCS accumulation was obsd. in earthworms incubated in a silty clay loam soil (bioaccumulation factor [BAF] = 12 ± 3.1) than in a sand (BAF = 6.5 ± 0.84). Field-collected earthworms had a significantly smaller BAF value (4.3 ± 0.7) than our lab. values (6.5-12.0). The BAF values varied significantly with exposure conditions (e.g., soil characteristics, lab. vs field conditions); however, a value of 10 represents a reasonable first approxn. for risk assessment purposes.
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Snyder, E. H.; O’Connor, G. A.; McAvoy, D. C.Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms Chemosphere2011, 82 ( 3) 460– 467
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref137/cit137&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.chemosphere.2010.09.054>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref137/cit137&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=21035164>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref137/cit137&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3cXhsF2mt7fP>]
Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms
Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A.; McAvoy, Drew C.
Chemosphere (2011), 82 (3), 460-467 CODEN: CMSHAF; ISSN:0045-6535. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecol. receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. const., direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), resp. The resultant calcd. TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand-1. Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-wt. TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2 - 18 and 0.00041 - 0.007 (gsoil gtissue-1), resp.
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Reiss, R.; Lewis, G.; Griffin, J.An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in the terrestrial environment Environ. Toxicol. Chem.2009, 28 ( 7) 1546– 1556
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref138/cit138&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1897%2F08-250.1>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref138/cit138&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=19228078>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref138/cit138&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD1MXnslehs7g%253D>]
An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in the terrestrial environment
Reiss, Richard; Lewis, Gavin; Griffin, John
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2009), 28 (7), 1546-1556 CODEN: ETOCDK; ISSN:0730-7268. (SETAC Press)
A review on triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether), a broad-spectrum bactericide used throughout North America and Europe for a variety of antimicrobial functions. This paper addresses the risk to terrestrial organisms from several potential exposure pathways: exposure experienced by earthworms, terrestrial plants, and soil microorganisms as the result of the use of sewage sludge contg. triclosan as an agricultural soil amendment; secondary exposure by birds and mammals from the consumption of earthworms that have been exposed to triclosan in soil; and secondary exposure by birds and mammals from the consumption of fish exposed to triclosan as the result of wastewater treatment discharges. The assessment found satisfactory margins of safety for plants, earthworms, birds, fish, mammals, and soil microorganisms. The lowest margins of safety were for nontarget plants (100 for the typical scenario and 8 for the upper-bound scenario). However, these margins of safety are still above the European Union (EU) recommended 5-fold assessment value for nontarget plants and are based on cucumber results from a vegetative vigor study conducted in quartz sand that is of limited relevance for risk assessment. In a pre-emergence study conducted in a more relevant soil (sandy loam), cucumbers showed no response to triclosan at the highest dose tested (1000 μg/kg). A recent study provides limited field measurements of soil and earthworm concns. While that study finds higher soil and earthworm concns. than were estd. in the present study, even these higher concns. do not indicate significant risks.
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Tarnow, P.; Tralau, T.; Hunecke, D.; Luch, A.Effects of triclocarban on the transcription of estrogen, androgen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive genes in human breast cancer cells Toxicol. In Vitro2013, 27 ( 5) 1467– 1475
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref139/cit139&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1016%2Fj.tiv.2013.03.003>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref139/cit139&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=23524099>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref139/cit139&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BC3sXnslamtLc%253D>]
Effects of triclocarban on the transcription of estrogen, androgen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive genes in human breast cancer cells
Tarnow, Patrick; Tralau, Tewes; Hunecke, Danele; Luch, Andreas
Toxicology In Vitro (2013), 27 (5), 1467-1475 CODEN: TIVIEQ; ISSN:0887-2333. (Elsevier Ltd.)
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent that is used in detergents, soaps and other personal hygiene products. Similarly to triclosan the widespread use of TCC has raised concerns about its endocrine potential. In luciferase-based reporter assays TCC has been shown to enhance estrogenic and androgenic activities following cellular coexposure with estrogen or dihydrotestosterone, resp. The present study demonstrates that although coexposure with TCC enhances the estrogenic and androgenic readout of luciferase-based reporter cell lines such as HeLa9908 and MDA-kb2, it fails to act as a xenoandrogen on transcriptional level, nor does it induce cell proliferation in the estrogen sensitive E-screen. In addn. TCC did not alter the expression of estrogen responsive genes in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells exposed to 17β-estradiol, bisphenol A, butylparaben or genistein. However, TCC was shown to interfere with the regulon of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as TCC showed a costimulatory effect on transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, effectively lowering the transcriptional threshold for both genes in the presence of estrogens. It thus seems, that while the induction of the resp. luciferase reporter assays by TCC is an unspecific false pos. signal caused by luciferase stabilization, TCC has the potential to interfere with the regulatory crosstalk of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the AhR regulon.
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Jones, R. D.; Jampani, H. B.; Newman, J. L.; Lee, A. S.Triclosan: A review of effectiveness and safety in health care settings Am. J. Infect. Control2000, 28 ( 2) 184– 196
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref140/cit140&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1067%2Fmic.2000.102378>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref140/cit140&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10760227>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref140/cit140&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD3c3it12gsg%253D%253D>]
Triclosan: a review of effectiveness and safety in health care settings
Jones R D; Jampani H B; Newman J L; Lee A S
American journal of infection control (2000), 28 (2), 184-96 ISSN:0196-6553.
Triclosan is a widely accepted antimicrobial ingredient because of its safety and antimicrobial efficacy. Triclosan is a unique antimicrobial well suited for use in the health care industry in which mildness is a necessity to protect the health care worker during repeated use and antimicrobial activity is a necessity to protect public health. Triclosan has demonstrated immediate, persistent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial effectiveness and utility in clinical health care settings. This review highlights the utility and effectiveness of a 1% triclosan formulation for use in high-risk, high-frequency handwashing.
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Aiello, A. E.; Coulborn, R. M.; Perez, V.; Larson, E. L.Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: A meta-analysis Am. J. Public Health2008, 98 ( 8) 1372– 1381
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref141/cit141&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.2105%2FAJPH.2007.124610>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref141/cit141&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=18556606>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref141/cit141&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD1cvjvVSisA%253D%253D>]
Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis
Aiello Allison E; Coulborn Rebecca M; Perez Vanessa; Larson Elaine L
American journal of public health (2008), 98 (8), 1372-81 ISSN:.
To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest efficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal illness of 31% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=19%, 42%) and reductions in respiratory illness of 21% (95% CI=5%, 34%). The most beneficial intervention was hand-hygiene education with use of nonantibacterial soap. Use of antibacterial soap showed little added benefit compared with use of nonantibacterial soap. Hand hygiene is clearly effective against gastrointestinal and, to a lesser extent, respiratory infections. Studies examining hygiene practices during respiratory illness and interventions targeting aerosol transmission are needed.
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U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Meeting of the NonprescriptionDrugs Advisory Committee. October 20, 2005 - Final Report. In FDA,U. S., Ed. 2005. http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/05/minutes/2005-4184M1.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014) .
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Karst, K. R., NRDC Sues FDA for Failing to Take Action on Triclosan and Triclocarban. In FDA Law Blog, 2010; Vol. 2014. http://www.fdalawblog.net/fda_law_blog_hyman_phelps/2010/08/nrdc-sues-fda-for-failing-to-take-action-on-triclosan-and-triclocarban.html (accessed February 28, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Karst, K. R., FDA Enters Into Consent Decree; Agrees to Timely Complete Triclosan OTC Drug Antiseptic Monographs. In FDA Law Blog, 2013; Vol. 2014. http://www.fdalawblog.net/fda_law_blog_hyman_phelps/2010/08/nrdc-sues-fda-for-failing-to-take-action-on-triclosan-and-triclocarban.html (accessed February 28, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Kimbroug, M. D.Review of Toxicity of Hexachlorophene, Including Its Neurotoxicity. J Clin. Pharmacol.1973, 13, ( 11–1), 439– 444.
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Hexachlorophene today. Lancet1982, 1, ( 8263), 87– 88.
[PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref146/cit146&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=6119501>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref146/cit146&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADyaL387gt1OksQ%253D%253D>]
Hexachlorophene today
Lancet (1982), 1 (8263), 87-8 ISSN:0140-6736.
There is no expanded citation for this reference.
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American Academy of Microbiology. Antibiotic Resistance: An Ecological Perspective on an Old Problem; 2009. http://academy.asm.org/images/stories/documents/antibioticresistance.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA). Triclosan; 2011. http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/consumers/personal_home_21_4240495089.pdf (accessed January 20, 2014).
There is no corresponding record for this reference.
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Peter, S.; Nayak, D. G.; Philip, P.; Bijlani, N. S.Antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of toothpastes containing Triclosan and fluoride Int. Dent. J.2004, 54 ( 5) 299– 303
[PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref149/cit149&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=15509080>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref149/cit149&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A280%3ADC%252BD2crjvVajsQ%253D%253D>]
Antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of toothpastes containing Triclosan and fluoride
Peter S; Nayak D G; Philip P; Bijlani N S
International dental journal (2004), 54 (5 Suppl 1), 299-303 ISSN:0020-6539.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the reduction of plaque and gingivitis from the following three toothpaste formulations containing: 0.3% Triclosan, 1,000ppm fluoride and 0.13% calcium glycerophosphate in a natural calcium carbonate base (a new paste); 0.2% Triclosan and 1,000ppm fluoride in a precipitated calcium carbonate base; 0.3% Triclosan, 1,000ppm fluoride and Gantrez in a silica base. A control group was maintained, which used commercially available toothpastes without the above actives. METHODS: A double-blind, four-cell, stratified, parallel group design study. Subjects brushed twice daily with their allocated toothpaste for 12 weeks. Plaque, MGI and gingival bleeding assessments were carried out at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks of product use. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: An analysis of covariance of the 12-week results showed significant differences between products [p<0.0001] for plaque, MGI and gingival bleeding. The new toothpaste formulation containing 0.3% Triclosan, 1,000ppm fluoride and 0.13% calcium glycerophosphate in a natural calcium carbonate base was shown to be significantly more effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis than the other toothpaste formulations in the study.
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Daughton, C. G.Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions Environ. Health Perspect.2003, 111 ( 5) 775– 85
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref150/cit150&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1289%2Fehp.5948>], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref150/cit150&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=12727607>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref150/cit150&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD3sXktlequ7s%253D>]
Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions
Daughton, Christian G.
Environmental Health Perspectives (2003), 111 (5), 775-785 CODEN: EVHPAZ; ISSN:0091-6765. (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services)
Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program, overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment, addnl., collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the 2nd of 2 parts describing the green pharmacy) I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues assocd. with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the 1st time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs.
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Constable, D. J. C.; Dunn, P. J.; Hayler, J. D.; Humphrey, G. R.; Leazer, J. L.; Linderman, R. J.; Lorenz, K.; Manley, J.; Pearlman, B. A.; Wells, A.; Zaks, A.; Zhang, T. Y.Key green chemistry research areas—A perspective from pharmaceutical manufacturers Green Chem.2007, 9 ( 5) 411– 420
[CrossRef<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref151/cit151&dbid=16&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1039%2Fb703488c>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref151/cit151&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2sXmslyqsbY%253D>]
Key green chemistry research areas-a perspective from pharmaceutical manufacturers
Constable, David J. C.; Dunn, Peter J.; Hayler, John D.; Humphrey, Guy R.; Leazer, Johnnie L., Jr.; Linderman, Russell J.; Lorenz, Kurt; Manley, Julie; Pearlman, Bruce A.; Wells, Andrew; Zaks, Aleksey; Zhang, Tony Y.
Green Chemistry (2007), 9 (5), 411-420 CODEN: GRCHFJ; ISSN:1463-9262. (Royal Society of Chemistry)
A review. In 2005, the ACS Green Chem. Institute (GCI) and the global pharmaceutical corporations developed the ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable to encourage the integration of green chem. and green engineering into the pharmaceutical industry. The Roundtable has developed a list of key research areas. The purpose of this perspective is to summarize how that list was agreed, provide an assessment of the current state of the art in those areas, and to highlight areas for future improvement.
>> More from SciFinder ®<https://scifinder.cas.org/scifinder/view/link_v1/reference.jsf?l=BmxxGlm8wGq5qBAEq--NobVg90H21EOLACvtfcHk0liWxG1AinPgWg>
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Khetan, S. K.; Collins, T. J.Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: A challenge to Green Chemistry Chem. Rev.2007, 107 ( 6) 2319– 64
[ACS Full Text [ACS Full Text] <http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref152/cit152&dbid=20&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=10.1021%2Fcr020441w> ], [PubMed<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref152/cit152&dbid=8&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=17530905>], [CAS<http://pubs.acs.org/servlet/linkout?suffix=ref152/cit152&dbid=32&doi=10.1021%2Fes500495p&key=1%3ACAS%3A528%3ADC%252BD2sXlvVelsrg%253D>]

Deborah L. DeBiasi
Email:   Deborah.DeBiasi at deq.virginia.gov
WEB site address:  www.deq.virginia.gov<http://www.deq.virginia.gov/>
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
Office of Water Permits
Industrial Pretreatment/Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Program
PPCPs, EDCs, and Microconstituents
Mail:          P.O. Box 1105, Richmond, VA  23218
Location:  629 E. Main Street, Richmond, VA  23219
PH:         804-698-4028      FAX:      804-698-4032

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