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<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="3" color="#000099" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/2015/08/10/aeration-may-remove-ssris-from-landfill-leachate/">http://www.environmentalleader.com/2015/08/10/aeration-may-remove-ssris-from-landfill-leachate/</a></span><o:p></o:p></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="3" color="#000099" face="Times New Roman"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">August 10, 2015<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><b><font size="5" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:18.0pt;color:windowtext;font-weight:bold">Aeration May Remove SSRIs From Landfill Leachate<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext"><img border="0" width="180" height="119" id="Picture_x0020_1" src="cid:image001.jpg@01D0EAE2.DE13EA60" alt="Aeration treatment may be an effective means of removing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) from landfill leachate before they reach the environment, a new study finds."></span></font><font color="black"><span style="color:windowtext"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><b><font size="4" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:13.5pt;color:windowtext;font-weight:bold">Related Stories<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><b><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext;font-weight:bold"><a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/2015/07/01/how-to-treat-landfill-leachate/" title="Permanent Link: How to Treat Landfill Leachate"><font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">How
 to Treat Landfill Leachate</span></font></a><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><b><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext;font-weight:bold"><a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/2012/12/20/wastewater-aeration-to-reach-8-4-billion-by-2020/" title="Permanent Link: Wastewater Aeration to Reach $8.4 Billion by 2020"><font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">Wastewater
 Aeration to Reach $8.4 Billion by 2020</span></font></a><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><b><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext;font-weight:bold"><a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/2015/07/24/landfill-consultant-uses-analyzer-to-improve-gas-management-techniques/" title="Permanent Link: Landfill Consultant Uses Analyzer to Improve Gas Management Techniques"><font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">Landfill
 Consultant Uses Analyzer to Improve Gas Management Techniques</span></font></a><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">Aeration treatment may be an effective means of removing selective serotonin
 reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) from landfill leachate before they reach the environment, a new study finds.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">SSRIs, generally used as antidepressants, are often not fully metabolized in
 the human body. When excreted, these drugs can end up in municipal sewage systems and landfill leachate. If the leachate enters the groundwater, the drug&nbsp;<a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/category/chemicals"><font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">compounds</span></font></a>
 can be released into the environment and have negative impacts on other living organisms.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">A team of Norwegian researchers set out to gain a better understanding of what
 happens to these compounds during aeration, and whether they can be removed before leachates enter the environment.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext"><a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/2015/01/14/winning-wastewater-treatment-technologies-use-passive-aeration-process-control/"><font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">Aeration</span></font></a>
 is used to purify the liquid within a pond or lagoon before it is released into the environment. However, not all
<a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/tag/pharmaceuticals"><font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">pharmaceuticals</span></font></a> react in the same&nbsp;way to aeration, and its effects on SSRIs within landfill leachate is poorly understood.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">Over a five-day period, the researchers mimicked the process used to treat landfill
 leachate using samples containing five different SSRIs &#8212; citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and fluvoxamine &#8212; and three of their metabolites. The concentration of the SSRIs in water samples was measured at the beginning and the end of the study
 period and compared to&nbsp;the total amount of SSRIs that would be present if no reduction had occurred. In all of the samples, the concentration of the SSRIs was reduced by more than 80 percent. Fluvoxamine and citalopram were removed entirely from both high-
 and low-concentration samples.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">The samples were also tested for their known metabolites, the compounds produced
 when these SSRIs are broken down in the body. Only one could be detected, suggesting that aeration may break down the compounds differently than human metabolism.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto"><font size="3" color="black" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext">The results of such studies could inform more sophisticated
<a href="http://www.environmentalleader.com/category/water-treatment-green-technology/">
<font color="blue"><span style="color:blue">water treatment</span></font></a> systems to prevent the negative environmental impact of pharmaceutical pollution.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="3" color="#000099" face="Times New Roman"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="3" color="#000099" face="Times New Roman"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="2" color="navy" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">Deborah L. DeBiasi</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><b><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy;font-weight:bold">Email: &nbsp;&nbsp;Deborah.DeBiasi@deq.virginia.gov</span></font></b><b><i><font size="2" color="red"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:red;font-weight:bold;font-style:italic"><br>
</span></font></i></b><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">WEB site address:&nbsp;
<a href="http://www.deq.virginia.gov/">www.deq.virginia.gov</a></span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">Virginia Department of Environmental Quality</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">Office of Water Permits
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">Industrial Pretreatment/Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Program</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">PPCPs, EDCs, and Microconstituents<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="2" color="navy" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><a href="http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/PermittingCompliance/PollutionDischargeElimination/Microconstituents.aspx">http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/PermittingCompliance/PollutionDischargeElimination/Microconstituents.aspx</a></span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="2" color="navy" face="Times New Roman"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">Mail:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; P.O. Box 1105, Richmond, VA&nbsp; 23218</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">Location:&nbsp; 629 E. Main Street, Richmond, VA&nbsp; 23219</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:11.0pt;color:navy"><br>
</span></font><font size="2" color="navy"><span style="font-size:10.0pt;color:navy">PH:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;804-698-4028&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; FAX: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 804-698-4032<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><font size="3" color="#000099" face="Times New Roman"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></font></p>
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